Next Article in Journal
A Gated Dilated Convolution with Attention Model for Clinical Cloze-Style Reading Comprehension
Previous Article in Journal
HIV Testing and Risks of Sexual Behavior among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ningbo, China
Article

Food Retail Environments in Greater Melbourne 2008–2016: Longitudinal Analysis of Intra-City Variation in Density and Healthiness of Food Outlets

1
Institute for Health Transformation, Global Obesity Centre, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia
2
Faculty of Health, Biostatistics Unit, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041321
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
Obesity prevalence is inequitably distributed across geographic areas. Food environments may contribute to health disparities, yet little is known about how food environments are evolving over time and how this may influence dietary intake and weight. This study aimed to analyse intra-city variation in density and healthiness of food outlets between 2008 and 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. Food outlet data were classified by location, type and healthiness. Local government areas (LGAs) were classified into four groups representing distance from the central business district. Residential population estimates for each LGA were used to calculate the density of food outlets per 10,000 residents. Linear mixed models were fitted to estimate the mean density and ratio of ‘healthy’ to ‘unhealthy’ food outlets and food outlet ‘types’ by LGA group over time. The number of food outlets increased at a faster rate than the residential population, driven by an increasing density of both ‘unhealthy’ and ‘healthy’ outlets. Across all years, ratios of ‘unhealthy’ to ‘healthy’ outlets were highest in LGAs located in designated Growth Areas. Melbourne’s metropolitan food environment is saturated by ‘unhealthy’ and ‘less healthy’ food outlets, relative to ‘healthy’ ones. Melbourne’s urban growth areas had the least healthy food environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: food retail; food environment; diet; obesity; urban growth food retail; food environment; diet; obesity; urban growth
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Needham, C.; Orellana, L.; Allender, S.; Sacks, G.; Blake, M.R.; Strugnell, C. Food Retail Environments in Greater Melbourne 2008–2016: Longitudinal Analysis of Intra-City Variation in Density and Healthiness of Food Outlets. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041321

AMA Style

Needham C, Orellana L, Allender S, Sacks G, Blake MR, Strugnell C. Food Retail Environments in Greater Melbourne 2008–2016: Longitudinal Analysis of Intra-City Variation in Density and Healthiness of Food Outlets. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4):1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Needham, Cindy, Liliana Orellana, Steven Allender, Gary Sacks, Miranda R. Blake, and Claudia Strugnell. 2020. "Food Retail Environments in Greater Melbourne 2008–2016: Longitudinal Analysis of Intra-City Variation in Density and Healthiness of Food Outlets" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 4: 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041321

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop