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Open AccessArticle

Maturity Related Differences in Body Composition Assessed by Classic and Specific Bioimpedance Vector Analysis among Male Elite Youth Soccer Players

1
Departments of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40121 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Neuroscience and Anthropology Section, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
3
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
4
School of Pharmacy, Biotechnology and Sport Science, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030729
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of classic and specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) in the assessment of maturity related differences in body composition among male elite youth soccer players, and to provide bioelectrical impedance reference data for this category. A group of 178 players (aged 12.1 ± 1.6 years) were registered in a professional Italian soccer team participating in the first division (Serie A). They were divided into three groups according to their maturity status while bioelectrical resistance and reactance were obtained. The classic and specific BIVA procedures were applied, which correct bioelectrical values for body height and body geometry, respectively. Percentage of fat mass (FM%) and total body water (TBW (L)) were estimated from bioelectrical values. Age-specific z-scores of the predicted age at peak height velocity identified 29 players as earlier-, 126 as on time-, and 23 as later-maturing. TBW was higher (p < 0.01) in adolescents classified as “early” maturity status compared to the other two groups and classic BIVA confirmed these results. Conversely, no differences in FM% were found among the groups. Specific vector length showed a higher correlation (r = 0.748) with FM% compared with the classic approach (r = 0.493). Classic vector length showed a stronger association (r = −0.955) with TBW compared with specific (r = −0.263). Specific BIVA turns out to be accurate for the analysis of FM% in athletes, while classic BIVA shows to be a valid approach to evaluate TBW. An original data set of bioelectric impedance reference values of male elite youth soccer players was provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: age at peak height velocity; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph age at peak height velocity; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph
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Toselli, S.; Marini, E.; Maietta Latessa, P.; Benedetti, L.; Campa, F. Maturity Related Differences in Body Composition Assessed by Classic and Specific Bioimpedance Vector Analysis among Male Elite Youth Soccer Players. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 729.

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