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Nickel: Human Health and Environmental Toxicology
Open AccessArticle

Experience of Stress Assessed by Text Messages and Its Association with Objective Workload—A Longitudinal Study

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Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Solna, Sweden
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Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring sciences, Unit of Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030680
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
Exploring stress trajectories in detail and over a long time may give valuable information in terms of both understanding and practice. We followed a group of primary health care employees in a randomized controlled trial. The objective was to describe their experience of stress, explore the intra-individual variability and examine the association between the experience of stress and the objective workload. Weekly text messages with a single item stress question were distributed in two time series: 12 weeks at the beginning of the trial and 26 weeks after the 6-month follow up. Aggregated objective data about workload were collected from their administration office and related to stress levels. There was a seasonal variation, with higher stress during the fall than in spring and summer. The analysis comparing high and low stress subgroups showed that the stress trajectory of a high-stress subgroup was different from that of a low-stress subgroup. Individuals with high exhaustion scores had higher odds of belonging to a subgroup of individuals with high intra-individual variability in stress experience. The objective workload was measured in two ways and was strongly associated with the stress experience. We found that the lower the productivity, the higher the feeling of stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: work stress; objective data; workload; intra-individual variability; new technology work stress; objective data; workload; intra-individual variability; new technology
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Arapovic-Johansson, B.; Wåhlin, C.; Hagberg, J.; Kwak, L.; Axén, I.; Björklund, C.; Jensen, I. Experience of Stress Assessed by Text Messages and Its Association with Objective Workload—A Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 680.

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