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Nickel: Human Health and Environmental Toxicology

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Dipartimento di Farmacia e Scienze della Salute e della Nutrizione, Università della Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cosenza), Italy
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Dipartimento di Farmacia-Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “A. Moro”, 70125 Bari, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030679
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 18 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology and Public Health)
Nickel is a transition element extensively distributed in the environment, air, water, and soil. It may derive from natural sources and anthropogenic activity. Although nickel is ubiquitous in the environment, its functional role as a trace element for animals and human beings has not been yet recognized. Environmental pollution from nickel may be due to industry, the use of liquid and solid fuels, as well as municipal and industrial waste. Nickel contact can cause a variety of side effects on human health, such as allergy, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, lung fibrosis, lung and nasal cancer. Although the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced toxicity are not yet clear, mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are thought to have a primary and crucial role in the toxicity of this metal. Recently, researchers, trying to characterize the capability of nickel to induce cancer, have found out that epigenetic alterations induced by nickel exposure can perturb the genome. The purpose of this review is to describe the chemical features of nickel in human beings and the mechanisms of its toxicity. Furthermore, the attention is focused on strategies to remove nickel from the environment, such as phytoremediation and phytomining. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel; nickel toxicity; nickel allergy; epigenetics; apoptosis; nickel phytoremediation nickel; nickel toxicity; nickel allergy; epigenetics; apoptosis; nickel phytoremediation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Genchi, G.; Carocci, A.; Lauria, G.; Sinicropi, M.S.; Catalano, A. Nickel: Human Health and Environmental Toxicology. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 679.

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