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Erratum: Lasheras, I.; et al. Prevalence of Anxiety in Medical Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Rapid Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6603
Open AccessArticle

The Psychological Impact of ‘Mild Lockdown’ in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency

1
Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social Sciences, Tokushima University, 1-1, Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8502, Japan
2
Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Tokushima University, 1-1, Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8502, Japan
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, NAIST, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan
4
Escuela de Medicina, División Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anáhuac Mayab, Carr. Mérida Progreso Km. 15.5, Mérida C.P. 97310, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249382
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
This study examined the psychological distress caused by non-coercive lockdown (mild lockdown) in Japan. An online survey was conducted with 11,333 people (52.4% females; mean age = 46.3 ± 14.6 years, range = 18–89 years) during the mild lockdown in the seven prefectures most affected by COVID-19 infection. Over one-third (36.6%) of participants experienced mild-to-moderate psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K6] score 5–12), while 11.5% reported serious psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). The estimated prevalence of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10) was 17.9%. Regarding the distribution of K6 scores, the proportion of those with psychological distress in this study was significantly higher when compared with the previous national survey data from 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2019. Healthcare workers, those with a history of treatment for mental illness, and younger participants (aged 18–19 or 20–39 years) showed particularly high levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress severity was influenced by specific interactional structures of risk factors: high loneliness, poor interpersonal relationships, COVID-19-related sleeplessness and anxiety, deterioration of household economy, and work and academic difficulties. Even when non-coercive lockdowns are implemented, people’s mental health should be considered, and policies to prevent mental health deterioration are needed. Cross-disciplinary public–private sector efforts tailored to each individual’s problem structure are important to address the mental health issues arising from lockdown. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; lockdown; psychological distress; mental health; depression; anxiety; loneliness; K6; PHQ-9 COVID-19; pandemic; lockdown; psychological distress; mental health; depression; anxiety; loneliness; K6; PHQ-9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamamoto, T.; Uchiumi, C.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshimoto, J.; Murillo-Rodriguez, E. The Psychological Impact of ‘Mild Lockdown’ in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249382

AMA Style

Yamamoto T, Uchiumi C, Suzuki N, Yoshimoto J, Murillo-Rodriguez E. The Psychological Impact of ‘Mild Lockdown’ in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249382

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Uchiumi, Chigusa; Suzuki, Naho; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric. 2020. "The Psychological Impact of ‘Mild Lockdown’ in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 24: 9382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249382

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