Next Article in Journal
Management of Occupational Risk Prevention of Nanomaterials Manufactured in Construction Sites in the EU
Next Article in Special Issue
University Students’ Perceived Peer Support and Experienced Depressive Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Emotional Well-Being
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of the Quality of Mobile Applications (Apps) for Management of Low Back Pain Using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mental Health Status of University Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Post–Movement Lockdown Assessment
Open AccessArticle

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors during the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Norway

1
Department of Health and Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, 2418 Elverum, Norway
2
Faculty of Health Studies, VID Specialized University, 4306 Sandnes, Norway
3
Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, 0484 Oslo, Norway
4
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0450 Oslo, Norway
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0372 Oslo, Norway
6
Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
7
Department of Research, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital HF, 1453 Bjørnemyr, Norway
8
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0167 Oslo, Norway
9
Faculty of Health Studies, VID Specialized University, 0370 Oslo, Norway
10
Department of Acute Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249210
Received: 23 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
The COVID-19 outbreak and the sudden lockdown of society in March 2020 had a large impact on people’s daily life and gave rise to concerns for the mental health in the general population. The aim of the study was to examine post-traumatic stress reactions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of symptom-defined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and factors associated with post-traumatic stress in the Norwegian population during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. A survey was administered via social media channels, to which a sample of 4527 adults (≥18 years) responded. Symptom-defined PTSD was measured with the PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5. The items were specifically linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the DSM-5 diagnostic guidelines to categorize participants as fulfilling the PTSD symptom criteria or not. Associations with PTSD were examined with single and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD was 12.5% for men and 19.5% for women. PTSD was associated with lower age, female gender, lack of social support, and a range of pandemic-related variables such as economic concerns, expecting economic loss, having been in quarantine or isolation, being at high risk for complications from COVID-19 infection, and having concern for family and close friends. In conclusion, post-traumatic stress reactions appear to be common in the Norwegian population in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerns about finances, health, and family and friends seem to matter. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; mental health; Norway; population study; PTSD coronavirus; mental health; Norway; population study; PTSD
MDPI and ACS Style

Bonsaksen, T.; Heir, T.; Schou-Bredal, I.; Ekeberg, Ø.; Skogstad, L.; Grimholt, T.K. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors during the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Norway. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249210

AMA Style

Bonsaksen T, Heir T, Schou-Bredal I, Ekeberg Ø, Skogstad L, Grimholt TK. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors during the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Norway. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249210

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Schou-Bredal, Inger; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K. 2020. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors during the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Norway" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 24: 9210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249210

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop