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Article

The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design

1
Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 20018 Donostia, Spain
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Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Social Health Sciences, Miguel Hernández University, 03202 Elche, Spain
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Department of Personality Psychology, Psychological Assessment and Treatment, Faculty of Psychology, National Distance Education University (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Methodology for Behavioural Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
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Group on Measurement Invariance and Analysis of Change (GEIMAC), Institute of Neuroscience, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228578
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown in the Spanish population and to identify what population profiles were most affected. The study used a sequential exploratory design. In the qualitative phase, 40 participants were recruited based on theoretically relevant criteria and the saturation of the information provided by the interviews. In the quantitative phase, a large representative sample was applied. The universe considered was the adult population of Spain. A total of 6789 surveys were conducted. Both the analysis of the narratives of the interviews and the responses to the panel survey showed relevant changes in attitudes and mood swings compared to the period prior to lockdown. These changes include dysphoric moods (i.e., experiences of distress such as sadness/depression, anxiety, rage, feeling of unreality, worry, etc.) and also some euphoric moods (i.e., feelings of well-being, happiness, etc.). A higher number of women were affected than men and a greater increase was observed in younger people. The findings of the study may serve as a basis for detecting needs and providing psychological support, as the symptoms detected as the most common are key for the processes of screening at-risk individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; psychological distress; mixed methods COVID-19; lockdown; psychological distress; mixed methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hidalgo, M.D.; Balluerka, N.; Gorostiaga, A.; Espada, J.P.; Santed, M.Á.; Padilla, J.L.; Gómez-Benito, J. The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228578

AMA Style

Hidalgo MD, Balluerka N, Gorostiaga A, Espada JP, Santed MÁ, Padilla JL, Gómez-Benito J. The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228578

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hidalgo, María Dolores, Nekane Balluerka, Arantxa Gorostiaga, José Pedro Espada, Miguel Ángel Santed, José Luis Padilla, and Juana Gómez-Benito. 2020. "The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228578

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