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Brief Report

A 2-Month Follow-Up Study of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Lockdown

1
Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
3
Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
5
Department of Medical Surgical Science and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218180
Received: 25 September 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 5 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has called for unprecedented measures, including a national lockdown in Italy. The present study aimed at identifying psychological changes (e.g., changes in depression, stress, and anxiety levels) among the Italian public during the lockdown period, in addition to factors associated with these changes. An online follow-up survey was administered to 439 participants (original sample = 2766), between 28 April and 3 May 2020. A paired sample t-test tested for differences in stress, anxiety, and depression over the period. Multivariate regression models examined associations between sociodemographic variables, personality traits, coping strategies, depression, and stress. Results showed an increase in stress and depression over the lockdown, but not anxiety. Negative affect and detachment were associated with higher levels of depression and stress. Higher levels of depression at the start of the lockdown, as well as fewer coping strategies and childlessness, were associated with increased depression at follow-up, whereas higher levels of stress at the start of the lockdown and younger age were associated with higher stress at follow-up. These results may help us to identify persons at greater risk of suffering from psychological distress as a result lockdown conditions, and inform psychological interventions targeting post-traumatic symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; follow-up; Italian citizens; depression; anxiety; stress; mental health intervention COVID-19; lockdown; follow-up; Italian citizens; depression; anxiety; stress; mental health intervention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roma, P.; Monaro, M.; Colasanti, M.; Ricci, E.; Biondi, S.; Di Domenico, A.; Verrocchio, M.C.; Napoli, C.; Ferracuti, S.; Mazza, C. A 2-Month Follow-Up Study of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Lockdown. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218180

AMA Style

Roma P, Monaro M, Colasanti M, Ricci E, Biondi S, Di Domenico A, Verrocchio MC, Napoli C, Ferracuti S, Mazza C. A 2-Month Follow-Up Study of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Lockdown. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):8180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roma, Paolo, Merylin Monaro, Marco Colasanti, Eleonora Ricci, Silvia Biondi, Alberto Di Domenico, Maria C. Verrocchio, Christian Napoli, Stefano Ferracuti, and Cristina Mazza. 2020. "A 2-Month Follow-Up Study of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Lockdown" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 21: 8180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218180

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