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One Virus, Four Continents, Eight Countries: An Interdisciplinary and International Study on the Psychosocial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Adults

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Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada
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School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury-Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Ngan Shing Street 30-32, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 7K4, Canada
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Département de communication, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
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School of Applied Politics, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
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School of Political Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
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National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada
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Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Philippines, Manille Grand Manille 1000, Philippines
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Centro Universitário de Brasília, Brasília 70850-090, Brazil
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Department of Health, Manila, Manille 2932, Philippines
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Public Health England, London SE1 8UG, UK
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Académie du journalisme et des médias, Université de Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
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Université de Genève, Boulevard du Pont-d’Arve 40, 1205 Genève, Switzerland
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Institut Langage et Communication, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
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Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Centre for Sociological Research, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Department of Family Medicine & Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228390
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 25 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Mental Health Risk Reduction)
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about several features that increased the sense of fear and confusion, such as quarantine and financial losses among other stressors, which may have led to adverse psychosocial outcomes. The influence of such stressors took place within a broader sociocultural context that needs to be considered. The objective was to examine how the psychological response to the pandemic varied across countries and identify which risk/protective factors contributed to this response. An online survey was conducted from 29 May 2020–12 June 2020, among a multinational sample of 8806 adults from eight countries/regions (Canada, United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of a wide range of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD and MDE were indicated by 21.0% and 25.5% of the respondents, respectively, with an important variation according to countries/regions (GAD: 12.2–31.0%; MDE: 16.7–32.9%). When considered together, 30.2% of the participants indicated probable GAD or MDE. Several factors were positively associated with a probable GAD or MDE, including (in descending order of importance) weak sense of coherence (SOC), lower age, false beliefs, isolation, threat perceived for oneself/family, mistrust in authorities, stigma, threat perceived for country/world, financial losses, being a female, and having a high level of information about COVID-19. Having a weak SOC yielded the highest adjusted odds ratio for probable GAD or MDE (3.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73–3.77). This pandemic is having an impact on psychological health. In some places and under certain circumstances, however, people seem to be better protected psychologically. This is a unique opportunity to evaluate the psychosocial impacts across various sociocultural backgrounds, providing important lessons that could inform all phases of disaster risk management. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; psychosocial impacts; sense of coherence pandemic; psychosocial impacts; sense of coherence
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Généreux, M.; Schluter, P.J.; Hung, K.K.; Wong, C.S.; Pui Yin Mok, C.; O’Sullivan, T.; David, M.D.; Carignan, M.-E.; Blouin-Genest, G.; Champagne-Poirier, O.; Champagne, É.; Burlone, N.; Qadar, Z.; Herbosa, T.; Ribeiro-Alves, G.; Law, R.; Murray, V.; Chan, E.Y.Y.; Pignard-Cheynel, N.; Salerno, S.; Lits, G.; d’Haenens, L.; Coninck, D.D.; Matthys, K.; Roy, M. One Virus, Four Continents, Eight Countries: An Interdisciplinary and International Study on the Psychosocial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8390. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228390

AMA Style

Généreux M, Schluter PJ, Hung KK, Wong CS, Pui Yin Mok C, O’Sullivan T, David MD, Carignan M-E, Blouin-Genest G, Champagne-Poirier O, Champagne É, Burlone N, Qadar Z, Herbosa T, Ribeiro-Alves G, Law R, Murray V, Chan EYY, Pignard-Cheynel N, Salerno S, Lits G, d’Haenens L, Coninck DD, Matthys K, Roy M. One Virus, Four Continents, Eight Countries: An Interdisciplinary and International Study on the Psychosocial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8390. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Généreux, Mélissa, Philip J. Schluter, Kevin K. Hung, Chi S. Wong, Catherine Pui Yin Mok, Tracey O’Sullivan, Marc D. David, Marie-Eve Carignan, Gabriel Blouin-Genest, Olivier Champagne-Poirier, Éric Champagne, Nathalie Burlone, Zeeshan Qadar, Teodoro Herbosa, Gleisse Ribeiro-Alves, Ronald Law, Virginia Murray, Emily Y.Y. Chan, Nathalie Pignard-Cheynel, Sébastien Salerno, Grégoire Lits, Leen d’Haenens, David D. Coninck, Koenraad Matthys, and Mathieu Roy. 2020. "One Virus, Four Continents, Eight Countries: An Interdisciplinary and International Study on the Psychosocial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8390. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228390

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