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Article

Early Gestational Exposure to High-Molecular-Weight Phthalates and Its Association with 48-Month-Old Children’s Motor and Cognitive Scores

1
Center for Research on Nutrition and Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca 62000, Mexico
2
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City 11000, Mexico
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
5
Research Unit in Occupational Health, Mexican Social Security Institute, Mexico City 06720, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218150
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 4 November 2020
In utero phthalate exposure has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, nevertheless, trimester-specific susceptibility remains understudied. Our aim was to identify susceptible windows to the effects of gestational High-Molecular-Weight Phthalates (HMWP) exposure on 48 months’ neurodevelopment. We measured six HMWP metabolites (MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, MBzP and MCPP) in urine samples collected during each trimester from women in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort (n = 218). We assessed children’s motor (MS), cognitive (GCI) and memory (MeS) abilities using McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA). We used linear regression models to examine associations between trimester-specific phthalate metabolites and MSCA scores, adjusted for sex, gestational age, breastfeeding, and maternal IQ. Although phthalate concentrations were similar across trimesters, first and second trimester phthalates were inversely associated with MS and GCI, with first trimester associations with MS being the strongest and statistically significant. Stronger associations were seen with MS and GCI among boys compared to girls, however interaction terms were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that early gestation is a sensitive window of exposure to HMWP for neurodevelopment, particularly in boys. Regulations on phthalate content in food as well as pregnancy consumption guidelines are necessary to protect future generations. View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalate; HMWP; pregnancy; trimester; neurodevelopment; MSCA phthalate; HMWP; pregnancy; trimester; neurodevelopment; MSCA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres-Olascoaga, L.A.; Watkins, D.; Schnaas, L.; Meeker, J.D.; Solano-Gonzalez, M.; Osorio-Valencia, E.; Peterson, K.E.; Tellez-Rojo, M.M.; Tamayo-Ortiz, M. Early Gestational Exposure to High-Molecular-Weight Phthalates and Its Association with 48-Month-Old Children’s Motor and Cognitive Scores. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218150

AMA Style

Torres-Olascoaga LA, Watkins D, Schnaas L, Meeker JD, Solano-Gonzalez M, Osorio-Valencia E, Peterson KE, Tellez-Rojo MM, Tamayo-Ortiz M. Early Gestational Exposure to High-Molecular-Weight Phthalates and Its Association with 48-Month-Old Children’s Motor and Cognitive Scores. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Torres-Olascoaga, Libni A., Deborah Watkins, Lourdes Schnaas, John D. Meeker, Maritsa Solano-Gonzalez, Erika Osorio-Valencia, Karen E. Peterson, Martha M. Tellez-Rojo, and Marcela Tamayo-Ortiz. 2020. "Early Gestational Exposure to High-Molecular-Weight Phthalates and Its Association with 48-Month-Old Children’s Motor and Cognitive Scores" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 21: 8150. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218150

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