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Open AccessArticle

Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by 1,2,3,†, 4,†, 1,5,6,*, 7 and 2,3,8,*
Department of Family Medicine and Center for Cancer Prevention and Detection, Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Korea
Environmental Health Center, College of Medicine,Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7358, USA
Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang 10408, Korea
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Management, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Goyang 10408, Korea
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital of the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this study as the first author.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8079;
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
We investigated whether cellular phone use was associated with increased risk of tumors using a meta-analysis of case-control studies. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to July 2018. The primary outcome was the risk of tumors by cellular phone use, which was measured by pooling each odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). In a meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies, compared with never or rarely having used a cellular phone, regular use was not associated with tumor risk in the random-effects meta-analysis. However, in the subgroup meta-analysis by research group, there was a statistically significant positive association (harmful effect) in the Hardell et al. studies (OR, 1.15—95% CI, 1.00 to 1.33— n = 10), a statistically significant negative association (beneficial effect) in the INTERPHONE-related studies (case-control studies from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); (OR, 0.81—95% CI, 0.75 to 0.89—n = 9), and no statistically significant association in other research groups’ studies. Further, cellular phone use with cumulative call time more than 1000 h statistically significantly increased the risk of tumors. This comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies found evidence that linked cellular phone use to increased tumor risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellular phone; electromagnetic field; tumor; case-control study; meta-analysis cellular phone; electromagnetic field; tumor; case-control study; meta-analysis
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Choi, Y.-J.; Moskowitz, J.M.; Myung, S.-K.; Lee, Y.-R.; Hong, Y.-C. Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8079.

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