Next Article in Journal
Exploring Similarities and Differences of Non-European Migrants among Forensic Patients with Schizophrenia
Next Article in Special Issue
Enhancing Self-Esteem and Body Image of Breast Cancer Women through Interventions: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Smoking during Pregnancy on Severity and Directionality of Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: A Genetically Informed Approach
Open AccessArticle

Subjective Environmental Experiences and Women’s Breastfeeding Journeys: A Survival Analysis Using an Online Survey of UK Mothers

1
Department of International Development, London School of Economics & Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, UK
2
Institute for Global Health, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK
3
UCL Anthropology, University College London, London WC1H 0BW, UK
4
BirthRites Independent Max Planck Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
5
Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217903
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
Local physical and social environmental factors are important drivers of human health and behaviour. Environmental perception has been linked with both reproduction and parenting, but links between subjective environmental experiences and breastfeeding remain unclear. Using retrospective data from an online survey of UK mothers of children aged 0–24 months, Cox-Aalen survival models test whether negative subjective environmental experiences negatively correlated with any and exclusive breastfeeding (max n = 473). Matching predictions, hazards of stopping any breastfeeding were increased, albeit non-significantly, across the five environmental measures (HR: 1.05–1.26) Hazards for stopping exclusive breastfeeding were however (non-significantly) reduced (HR: 0.65–0.87). Score processes found no significant time-varying effects. However, estimated cumulative coefficient graphs showed that the first few weeks postpartum were most susceptible to environmental influences and that contrary to our predictions, mothers with worse subjective environmental experiences were less likely to stop breastfeeding at this time. In addition, the hazard of stopping exclusive breastfeeding declined over time for mothers who thought that littering was a problem. The predicted increased hazards of stopping breastfeeding were only evident in the later stages of any breastfeeding and only for mothers who reported littering as a problem or that people tended not to know each other. Perceived harsher physical and social environmental conditions are assumed to deter women from breastfeeding, but this may not always be the case. Women’s hazards of stopping breastfeeding change over time and there may be particular timepoints in their breastfeeding journeys where subjective environmental experiences play a role. View Full-Text
Keywords: UK; breastfeeding; subjective environmental experiences; physical environment; social environment; social support; crime; littering UK; breastfeeding; subjective environmental experiences; physical environment; social environment; social support; crime; littering
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, L.J.; Myers, S.; Page, A.E.; Emmott, E.H. Subjective Environmental Experiences and Women’s Breastfeeding Journeys: A Survival Analysis Using an Online Survey of UK Mothers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217903

AMA Style

Brown LJ, Myers S, Page AE, Emmott EH. Subjective Environmental Experiences and Women’s Breastfeeding Journeys: A Survival Analysis Using an Online Survey of UK Mothers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):7903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brown, Laura J.; Myers, Sarah; Page, Abigail E.; Emmott, Emily H. 2020. "Subjective Environmental Experiences and Women’s Breastfeeding Journeys: A Survival Analysis Using an Online Survey of UK Mothers" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 21: 7903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217903

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop