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Open AccessArticle

Multiple Cryotherapy Attenuates Oxi-Inflammatory Response Following Skeletal Muscle Injury

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Department of Applied and Clinical Physiology, Collegium Medicum University of Zielona Gora, 65-417 Zielona Gora, Poland
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Centre of Information Technologies, University of Zielona Gora, 65-417 Zielona Gora, Poland
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Department of Nervous System Diseases, Collegium Medium University of Zielona Gora, Neurosurgery Center University Hospital in Zielona Gora, 65-417 Zielona Gora, Poland
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Department of Neurology, Pomeranian Medical University Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
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Department of Neurology, District Hospital Glogow, 67-200 Glogow, Poland
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Department of Sport Kinesiology, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217855
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 27 October 2020
The oxi-inflammatory response is part of the natural process mobilizing leukocytes and satellite cells that contribute to clearance and regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. In sports medicine, a number of post-injury recovery strategies, such as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), are used to improve skeletal muscle regeneration often without scientific evidence of their benefits. The study was designed to assess the impact of WBC on circulating mediators of skeletal muscle regeneration. Twenty elite athletes were randomized to WBC group (3-min exposure to −120 °C, twice a day for 7 days) and control group. Blood samples were collected before the first WBC session and 1 day after the last cryotherapy exposure. WBC did not affect the indirect markers of muscle damage but significantly reduced the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (H2O2 and NO) as well as the concentrations of serum interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The changes in circulating growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFBB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were also reduced by WBC exposure. The study demonstrated that WBC attenuates the cascade of injury–repair–regeneration of skeletal muscles whereby it may delay skeletal muscle regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; growth factors; hydrogen peroxide; nitric oxide; whole body cryotherapy cytokines; growth factors; hydrogen peroxide; nitric oxide; whole body cryotherapy
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Zembron-Lacny, A.; Morawin, B.; Wawrzyniak-Gramacka, E.; Gramacki, J.; Jarmuzek, P.; Kotlega, D.; Ziemann, E. Multiple Cryotherapy Attenuates Oxi-Inflammatory Response Following Skeletal Muscle Injury. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7855.

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