Aging at Work: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Directions
- What are the motivations that drive the research on the aging labour force?
- What are the most common solutions for addressing the issues related to aging at work?
2.1. Article Search Strategy
2.2. Article Selection Process
- Articles that consider the concept of aging at work, i.e., the aging labour force.
- Articles that discuss any of three motivation factors, i.e., discrimination, growth, and deficit;
- Articles that support any of three solution pillars, i.e., assistance, policies, and legislation.
- Articles that use research methodology with any results.
- Articles that are about aging and older people in general that do not consider the concept of aging at work;
- Articles that cover any of three motivation factors, i.e., discrimination, growth, and deficit, in a context other than the aging labour force;
- Articles that cover any of three solution pillars, i.e., assistance, policies, and legislation, in the context other than the aging labour force;
- Articles that do not provide sufficient information for classification.
2.3. Article Review and Analysis
- Articles that focused on motivation factors (i.e., discrimination, growth, and deficit);
- Articles that focused on solution pillars (i.e., assistance, policies, and legislation).
4.1. Study Implications and Recommendations
|Focus||Study||Objective||Methods||Main Findings||Limitations||Key Words|
|Discrimination||||To recognize psychosocial work condition factors of interest to keep older workers by assessing the connection between the psychosocial work conditions and early voluntary pension.||Longitudinal study (survey). Study sample—general sample (N = 9913) aged 18-60 years, senior sample (N = 4477) aged 50 years, company sample (N = 3823) aged 18–80 years. Cox regression. Holm-Sidak correlation test.||Older workers with high job satisfaction, development possibilities, affirmative relations to management, and no age discrimination stayed longer in the work market. Positive relations with colleagues did not affect older workers decisions on early pension.||The measures were self-evaluated. The psychosocial factors were measured at single time point. Successive changes in the psychosocial work conditions could cause early pension that would be missed by the study.||Early pension, work conditions, management quality, job satisfaction|
|||To examine the relation between successful aging and stress sources at work among older workers in China||Questionnaire study. Study sample—242 workers aged >40 years. Method variance. Harman’s one-factor test. Factor analysis.||Perception of institutional support and social help from family and friends significantly corresponds to efficient aging at work.||Participants were surveyed at a single time point. The study relied on participants self-reports.||Successful aging, work stressor, social help, institutional support|
|||To improve comprehension of the discrimination at work, with a focus on age and gender challenges.||Survey study. Study sample—3203 workers with mean age 43 years. Computer-aided telephone interview. Binary logistic regression.||Daily discrimination was unusual. It appears with age among men, and not among women. The nature of work market age obstacles is not understood correctly, and the degree of aging discrimination is overstated.||There was a small number of workers who faced daily discrimination. The degree of daily discrimination has to be further investigated.||Ageism, employment discrimination, gender, work|
|||To investigate the age-related connection between job stress, extreme tiredness, prosperity, and associated personal, institutional, and community factors.||Survey study. Study sample—1298 participants aged 18 years or older. Descriptive statistics. Linear Regression. One-way analysis of variance.||Job stress was associated with several types of extreme tiredness and prosperity. Personal work style, institutional and community factors were associated with prosperity. Old age was connected to a poor perception of health.||The study did not compare work differences. The data were cross-sectional and the causal relation of the work conditions and style with job stress, extreme tiredness, and prosperity could not be confirmed.||Age difference, exhaustion, prosperity, work stress, work condition|
|Growth||||To investigate the connection of social, demographic, economic and job related factors with disability.||Survey study. Study sample—2665 men, 2209 women aged 50–54 years. Principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis. Poisson regression. Maximum likelihood estimation.||A decrease in job stress and sociable disproportion in healthcare is appropriate for the development of policies that support aging at work.||The disability indices were not formulated based on functional testing. The evaluation of stressful work was performed by abbreviated scales.||Socioeconomic position, aging workforce, work stress, work ability, social disproportion|
|||To examine organizational work disrupting age-graded policies.||Interview study. Study sample—23 organizations with employees aged 50–69 years. Qualitative content analysis.||Organizations implement changes by creating common policies and strategies, but not those oriented toward an aging workforce. They propose to intentionally interrupt the existing age-graded logic and replace it with age-neutral logic.||Creative, high-tech, or communications organizations were not studied. Sample size was small, so broader claims about Minnesota or U.S. workers cannot be made.||Organizational logic, older workers, pension, flexibility|
|||To examine the influence of demographic trends on the economic growth and employment level that Japan is expected to face in the next 20 years||NUPRI Macro Simulation model of the economy in Japan||The expected decline in employment could be partially offset by public policies that encourage the employment of older people.||Not reported.||Low fertility, population decline, population aging|
|||To provide a literature review on the need for the senior workforce and recognize main directions for research on this topic.||Systematic literature review. Empirical evidence.||There is a negative association between salary and employment outcomes for the senior workforce. The connection between efficiency and salary is defined by governmental conditions and motivation to take early pension.||The variations in micro-, macro-, and meso-level factors were not captured, simultaneously. There is a need for improvements in the analysis of the impact of age-based discrimination on the employing of older workers.||Work market, employment protection, regulation, legislation|
|Deficit||||To examine the influence of organizational factors on work ability.||Cross-sectional study (online survey). Study sample—306 employees. Path analysis modeling. Maximum likelihood estimation.||Organizational culture and professional effort indirectly enabled the prediction of work ability, with job satisfaction mediating these relations.||The sample included mostly younger and female workers. The cross-sectional design of the study did not provide the possibility to understand causes and effects related to work ability.||Work ability, organizational culture|
|||To recognize professions prevailed by an older workforce and evaluate their vulnerability to hazards in these professions.||Survey study (interviews). Study sample—6502 workers aged 55 or more. Chi-squared test.||Work-related hazards should be decreased to inhibit professional disturbance in professions prevailed by an older workforce.||Self-informed data were included in the study.||Health issues, hazards, profession, musculoskeletal disorders|
|||To investigate job discrimination related to age and disability.||Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data from 1993 to 2007. Descriptive statistics.||Job discrimination of aged or disabled workers is focused on challenges involving seating, revenge, and cancellation.||Data do not contain supplemental information regarding a secondary cause for each filed allegation.||Job/age/disability discrimination|
|||To investigate the relation between psychosocial factors and pension intention of older employees, while considering healthiness and work ability.||Survey study. Study sample—3122 workers aged 50 years or older. Pearson correlation. Ordinal logistic regression.||Ageism and the absence of acknowledgement and growth opportunities are connected to older male workers’ pension intention. Work ability is strongly related to the pension intention of both genders.||The pension age could depend on unfamiliar alternations in the worker’s environment or health status.||Psychosocial factors, pension intention, healthiness, work ability|
|Focus||Study||Objective||Methods||Main Findings||Limitations||Key Words|
|Assistance||||To critically review the literature on older farmers in Canada and the USA and describe how musculoskeletal disorders influence their ability to work.||Literature review. Twelve articles analyzed in detail.||Musculoskeletal disturbance can lead to trauma or loss of ability to farm. It is necessary to develop safer work practices and encourage healthiness, efficiency, and professional longevity.||Some related articles may have been excluded from the study due to the specificity of the search strings.||Older farmers, work-related musculoskeletal disorders, pension age|
|||To investigate the action plans that workers use to acquire skills in software and complete assignments||Exploratory study (interviews, surveys). Study sample—10 administrative assistants. Grounded Theory. Non-parametric statistics.||Administrative assistants are regularly communicating and sharing knowledge.||Exclusion of workers from different organizations, lack of extensive investigation on behavior at work, and creation of software tool design instructions.||Workplace, generations, collaboration|
|||To collect information to direct the preparation of programs for returning older adults to work||Survey study (questionnaires). Study sample—37 jobless participants aged 51–76 years. ANOVA. Chi-square test.||Participants who felt discriminated indicated the preference to acquire technological skills and get classroom-based education.||Work obstacles could not be generalized.||Older workers, absence of technological skills, work conditions, work experiences|
|Policy||||To investigate factors related to perceived work ability in a sample of Brazilians sample aged 50 years and more||Longitudinal study (surveys). Study sample—8903 workers aged 50 years and over. Multivariate analysis. Poisson regression.||Work ability in old age depends on the life course, i.e., academic level, health conditions in younger and older age, minimum working age, etc. Policies aiming to extend longevity in the work market must consider these factors.||The collection of self-reported data associated with past experiences might have been affected by the preference to demonstrate an acceptable image, causing information bias. Establishment of temporal relations for the variable related to current conditions is limited.||Work ability, health, socioeconomic factors|
|||To review the documentation about the influence of psychological health on staying at work after pension and discuss consequences of public health policies.||Systematic literature review. Ten articles analyzed in detail.||Staying at work after pension can be positive for psychological health. Pension action plans are required to provide national policies that will increase the pension age and not exacerbate any disproportion in the older population.||Only cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating the impact of unexpected variables on psychological health were involved in the review.||Pension, job status, psychological health, social policy|
|||To analyze the literature on workplace health promotion (WHP) aimed at older workers||Systematic literature review. Eighteen articles analyzed in detail.||Existing documentation does not demonstrate that WHP enhance work ability, retention, efficiency, lifestyle, health, or prosperity of the senior workforce.||The heterogeneity and low quality of the studies makes it difficult to synthesize the literature and draw the conclusions.||Workplace health promotion, senior workforce, health, lifestyle|
|||To investigate the results of unfulfilled expectations of staying at work after age 62 on life satisfaction.||Longitudinal survey. Study sample—1684 workers aged 51 and over. Growth mixture modeling. Descriptive statistics. Linear regression. Multi-nominal logistic regression.||Majority of men and almost no women expected to stay at work after age 62. The subjective prosperity of older adults is affected by unmet expectations of staying longer at work.||The significance of different job options before full pension was not assessed.||Work expectations, pension, life satisfaction, subjective prosperity|
|||To find out whether the workers’ ages determine the evaluation of their work–life balance.||Survey study. Study sample—500 workers aged from 21 to 70 years. Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman’s R correlation analysis.||The maintenance of work–life balance will be indicated by older workers. All employees do not have the same possibilities to take advantage of solutions that provide the support of work-life balance.||The diversity of the answers given by the participants according to the type and state of particpants affiliation was not analyzed.||Work-life balance, workers’assessment, aging workforce|
|Legislation||||To estimate the impact on the efficiency of the reduction of assortment mechanisms among senior employees.||Italian National Institute of Statistics data from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive statistics. Multivariate regression analysis.||The growth of pension age, as well as limitations on early pension intention, kept older workers at the work without a positive influence on efficiency. More efficient older employees are mroe likely to stay at work in comparison with those who are not as efficient.||The number of employees kept at the work was underestimated. The reform’s influence on the employees’ structure is an additional issue.||aging workforce, pension reforms, labor productivity|
|||To investigate the workforce participation and absence among older adults in Sweden.||Data from the Swedish population register. Study sample—workers aged 55–64 years. Descriptive statistics.||The alternation in regulations affected the share of workers associated with illness and disability pension programs. Simultaneously, the share of workers going to early pension has grown.||This study noticed no alternation related to the difference in working-life exit patterns associated with hierarchical and academic positions in the organization.||Workforce participation, older worker, pension, illness benefits|
|||To review the expert way of thinking in relation to policies influencing the employment of older adults.||Survey study. Study sample—89 participants aged 50 years or older. Descriptive statistics.||A broad range of policies recommend possibilities for innovation.||There is a sampling bias related to the language and review method. There were no participants from South America, while a few participants from Africa demonstrated about limited Internet access.||Aging workforce, older workers, employment policy, mandatory pension, government answers|
|||To investigate whether age and mental capabilities mitigate the connection between job stress and negative affect||Survey study. Study sample—139 workers aged 25–69 years. Descriptive statistics. Correlation and regression analysis. Johnson–Neyman technique.||Cognition mitigated the connection between job stress and negative affect. Crystallized cognition had a large influence on the connection between job stress and negative affect for senior workers. The mitigating influence of fluid cognition was unchanging.||The study did not permit a setup of directionality among variables. Better evaluation of professional features and job requirements is needed.||Job stress, negative affect, older workers|
- Encourage incentives to extend the working ability in old age;
- Eliminate age-based discrimination at work along with promotion of gender equality;
- Invest in education, lifelong learning, health and well-being while increasing the productivity;
- Improve the working conditions to increase the safety at work and health of workers;
- Support late retirement along with the increase of life expectancy;
- Reduce the use of early retirement if workers’ health and work ability are satisfactory.
4.2. Study Strengths and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Keywords||“active aging at work”, “older adults at work”, “successful aging at work”, “healthy aging at work”, “productive aging at work”|
|Motivations||“deficit”, “discrimination”, “growth”|
|Solutions||“EU policy”, “assistance schemes”, “eligibility criteria", “legislation”, “national policy”|
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Barakovic Husic, J.; Melero, F.J.; Barakovic, S.; Lameski, P.; Zdravevski, E.; Maresova, P.; Krejcar, O.; Chorbev, I.; Garcia, N.M.; Trajkovik, V. Aging at Work: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Directions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207659
Barakovic Husic J, Melero FJ, Barakovic S, Lameski P, Zdravevski E, Maresova P, Krejcar O, Chorbev I, Garcia NM, Trajkovik V. Aging at Work: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Directions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207659Chicago/Turabian Style
Barakovic Husic, Jasmina, Francisco José Melero, Sabina Barakovic, Petre Lameski, Eftim Zdravevski, Petra Maresova, Ondrej Krejcar, Ivan Chorbev, Nuno M. Garcia, and Vladimir Trajkovik. 2020. "Aging at Work: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Directions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207659