Next Article in Journal
Clinical Behavior of Ceramic, Hybrid and Composite Onlays. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Tobacco Consumption and Anxiety or Depression during Pregnancy on Maternal and Neonatal Health
Previous Article in Journal
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Tuscany Region, Italy, 2016–2017: Integrating Multiple Data Sources to Investigate Underreporting
Article

The Psychometric Properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 for Pregnant Women

1
Department of Psychology, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Deparment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
3
Department of Psychology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
4
Deparment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Instituto de Salud de la Mujer José Botella Llusiá, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Faculty of Medicine Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207583
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health)
Background: Perinatal anxiety and depression are common complications during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the item characteristics, reliability, validity, and factorial structure of the four-item Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) and to determine the associations between scale scores and sociodemographic factors in a sample of pregnant women from Spain. Method: A total of 845 pregnant women were recruited from two public hospitals in Spain between 2014 and 2016. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included Patient Health Questionnaire-4, including the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and scale inter-correlations between the PHQ-4 and PHQ-9 revealed that the PHQ-4 has a bivariate structure and adequately assesses the dimensions of antenatal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid instrument to screen for depression and anxiety during pregnancy. The PHQ-4 is an ultra-brief measure that can be used to screen for antenatal depression and anxiety to prevent the negative consequences associated with these mental health conditions among mothers and infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; anxiety; pregnancy; PHQ-4; assessment tools depression; anxiety; pregnancy; PHQ-4; assessment tools
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Muñoz, M.d.l.F.; Ruiz-Segovia, N.; Soto-Balbuena, C.; Le, H.-N.; Olivares-Crespo, M.E.; Izquierdo-Méndez, N. The Psychometric Properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 for Pregnant Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207583

AMA Style

Rodríguez-Muñoz MdlF, Ruiz-Segovia N, Soto-Balbuena C, Le H-N, Olivares-Crespo ME, Izquierdo-Méndez N. The Psychometric Properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 for Pregnant Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez-Muñoz, María d.l.F., Natalia Ruiz-Segovia, Cristina Soto-Balbuena, Huynh-Nhu Le, María E. Olivares-Crespo, and Nuria Izquierdo-Méndez. 2020. "The Psychometric Properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 for Pregnant Women" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207583

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop