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Open AccessReview

Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Unit, AOU Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, Italy
5
Infectious Diseases Department, AOU Sassari, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020615
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 11 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Enteric fever is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B and C. The high incidence in low income countries can increase the risk of disease in travelers coming from high income countries. Pre-travel health advice on hygiene and sanitation practices and vaccines can significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infections. Although the majority of the cases are self-limiting, life-threatening complications can occur. Delayed diagnosis and cases of infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains can complicate the clinical management and affect the prognosis. More international efforts are needed to reduce the burden of disease in low income countries, indirectly reducing the risk of travelers in endemic settings. Surveillance activities can help monitor the epidemiology of cases caused by drug-susceptible and resistant strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: salmonella enterica; typhoid and paratyphoid fever; travelers salmonella enterica; typhoid and paratyphoid fever; travelers
MDPI and ACS Style

Muresu, N.; Sotgiu, G.; Are, B.M.; Cossu, A.; Cocuzza, C.; Martinelli, M.; Babudieri, S.; Are, R.; Dettori, M.; Azara, A.; Saderi, L.; Piana, A. Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020615

AMA Style

Muresu N, Sotgiu G, Are BM, Cossu A, Cocuzza C, Martinelli M, Babudieri S, Are R, Dettori M, Azara A, Saderi L, Piana A. Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2):615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020615

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muresu, Narcisa; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Are, Bianca M.; Cossu, Andrea; Cocuzza, Clementina; Martinelli, Marianna; Babudieri, Sergio; Are, Riccardo; Dettori, Marco; Azara, Antonio; Saderi, Laura; Piana, Andrea. 2020. "Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 2: 615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020615

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