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Open AccessArticle

Affiliate Stigma and Related Factors in Family Caregivers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

by Chih-Cheng Chang 1,2,†, Yu-Min Chen 3,†, Tai-Ling Liu 3,4, Ray C. Hsiao 5,6, Wen-Jiun Chou 7,8,* and Cheng-Fang Yen 3,4,*
1
Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 70246, Taiwan
2
Department of Health Psychology, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan
3
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, and Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195-6560, USA
6
Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
7
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
8
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Chih-Cheng Chang and Yu-Min Chen contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020576
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stigma, Health and Wellbeing)
This cross-sectional questionnaire study examined factors related to affiliate stigma among caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the association of affiliate stigma with caregivers’ unfavorable attitude toward ADHD and moderators. The affiliate stigma of 400 caregivers of children with ADHD was assessed using the Affiliate Stigma Scale. Caregivers’ and children’s factors related to affiliate stigma were examined using multiple regression analysis. Associations of affiliate stigma with caregivers’ unfavorable attitudes toward children’s diagnoses, pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, and biological explanations of the etiologies of ADHD were examined using logistic regression analysis. Female caregivers and those caring for girls with ADHD had higher levels of affiliate stigma than did male caregivers and those caring for boys. Higher education levels in caregivers and more severe inattention symptoms in children were associated with higher levels of affiliate stigma. A higher level of affiliate stigma was also significantly associated with unfavorable attitudes toward children’s diagnoses, pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, and etiological explanations for ADHD. Multiple factors of caregivers and children were related to affiliate stigma in caregivers of children with ADHD. Affiliate stigma is significantly associated with caregivers’ unfavorable attitude toward ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; caregivers; affiliate stigma attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; caregivers; affiliate stigma
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Chang, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, T.-L.; Hsiao, R.C.; Chou, W.-J.; Yen, C.-F. Affiliate Stigma and Related Factors in Family Caregivers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 576.

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