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Open AccessArticle

Bone Mineral Density in Severely Obese Women: Health Risk and Health Protective Risk Factors in Three Different Bone Sites

1
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-020, Goiás, Brazil
2
Postgraduate Program in Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-220, Goiás, Brazil
3
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-220, Goiás, Brazil
4
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197017
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 6 August 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) are poorly known in severely obese individuals i.e., a body mass index (BMI) > 35 kg/m2. The objectives of this study were to describe the bone health profile of severely obese Brazilian women, to identify the health risk and health protective factors for BMD in this group and to assess whether these factors vary according to three different bone sites. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This study analyzed baseline data from 104 women who had an average BMI of 43.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and presented the following BMD status: 1.283 ± 0.094 g/cm2 for total body, 1.062 ± 0.159 g/cm2 for vertebral column and 1.195 ± 0.134 g/cm2 for hip. They took part in the “Effect of nutritional intervention and olive oil in severe obesity” randomized clinical trial (DieTBra Trial). The risk factors negatively associated with lower BMD were age ≥50 years for the three bone sites i.e., total body, vertebral column and hip. Smoking for total body BMD (p = 0.045); BMI ≥ 50kg/m2 for vertebral column and hip; menopause for hip; high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.049), insufficient zinc (p = 0.010) and previous fracture for vertebral column (p = 0.007). The protective factors positively associated with BMD were physical activity (≥150 min/week (p = 0.001)) for hip; type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) (p < 0.0001) total body and adequate vitamin D levels from food consumption (p = 0.039) for vertebral column. A BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 was a risk factor for lower BMD. The findings showed that protective and risk factors varied by bone site. The original study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. (protocol number: NCT02463435). View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue; bone health; morbid obesity; vitamin D; smoking bone tissue; bone health; morbid obesity; vitamin D; smoking
MDPI and ACS Style

Kellen de Souza Cardoso, C.; Gondim Peixoto, M.R.; dos Santos Rodrigues, A.P.; Rodrigues Mendonça, C.; de Oliveira, C.; Aparecida Silveira, E. Bone Mineral Density in Severely Obese Women: Health Risk and Health Protective Risk Factors in Three Different Bone Sites. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7017.

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