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A Review of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Impact on the Offspring through Development: Evidence from Animal Models of Over- and Undernutrition

1
Division of Agricultural Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
2
Formerly, Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, Lewisburg, WV 24901, USA
4
Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University, Bryan, TX 77807, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Author contribution is honored posthumous.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186926
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 19 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
Similarities in offspring phenotype due to maternal under- or over-nutrition during gestation have been observed in studies conducted at University of Wyoming. In these studies, ewes were either nutrient-restricted (NR) from early to mid-gestation, or fed an obesogenic diet (MO) from preconception through term. Offspring necropsies occurred at mid-gestation, late-gestation, and after parturition. At mid gestation, body weights of NR fetuses were ~30% lighter than controls, whereas MO fetuses were ~30% heavier than those of controls. At birth, lambs born to NR, MO, and control ewes exhibited similar weights. This was a consequence of accelerated fetal growth rates in NR ewes, and reduced fetal growth rates in MO ewes in late gestation, when compared to their respective controls. These fetal growth patterns resulted in remarkably similar effects of increased susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and glucose intolerance in offspring programmed mostly during fetal stages of development. These data provide evidence that maternal under- and over-nutrition similarly induce the development of the same cadre of physical and metabolic problems in postnatal life. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal programming; maternal obesity; maternal undernutrition; metabolic syndrome; epigenetics fetal programming; maternal obesity; maternal undernutrition; metabolic syndrome; epigenetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Odhiambo, J.F.; Pankey, C.L.; Ghnenis, A.B.; Ford, S.P. A Review of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Impact on the Offspring through Development: Evidence from Animal Models of Over- and Undernutrition. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6926. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186926

AMA Style

Odhiambo JF, Pankey CL, Ghnenis AB, Ford SP. A Review of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Impact on the Offspring through Development: Evidence from Animal Models of Over- and Undernutrition. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6926. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186926

Chicago/Turabian Style

Odhiambo, John F., Christopher L. Pankey, Adel B. Ghnenis, and Stephen P. Ford. 2020. "A Review of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Impact on the Offspring through Development: Evidence from Animal Models of Over- and Undernutrition" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6926. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186926

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