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Communication

Applying the WHO ICF Framework to the Outcome Measures Used in the Evaluation of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Coronavirus Outbreaks

1
School of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PG, UK
2
Division of Neurosciences and Experimental Psychology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
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Neuroscience and Rehabilitation Department, Ferrara University Hospital, 44100 Ferrara, Italy
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Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608, Singapore
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School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen’s University, Louise D. Acton Building, 31 George Street, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
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Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19144, USA
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Academic Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Leeds and Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186476
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Prognosis, Outcomes and Long-Term Sequelae)
(1) Objective: The World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) classification is a unified framework for the description of health and health-related states. This study aimed to use the ICF framework to classify outcome measures used in follow-up studies of coronavirus outbreaks and make recommendations for future studies. (2) Methods: EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were systematically searched for original studies assessing clinical outcomes in adult survivors of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) after hospital discharge. Individual items of the identified outcome measures were linked to ICF second-level and third-level categories using ICF linking rules and categorized according to an ICF component. (3) Results: In total, 33 outcome measures were identified from 36 studies. Commonly used (a) ICF body function measures were Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT), Impact of event scale (IES-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (b) ICF activity was 6-Minute Walking Distance (6MWD); (c) ICF participation measures included Short Form-36 (SF-36) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). ICF environmental factors and personal factors were rarely measured. (4) Conclusions: We recommend future COVID-19 follow-up studies to use the ICF framework to select a combination of outcome measures that capture all the components for a better understanding of the impact on survivors and planning interventions to maximize functional return. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS; MERS; outcome measures; follow-up studies; prevalence; lung function; exercise tolerance; mental health; quality of life COVID-19; SARS; MERS; outcome measures; follow-up studies; prevalence; lung function; exercise tolerance; mental health; quality of life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, K.; Straudi, S.; Yee Sien, N.; Fayed, N.; Melvin, J.L.; Sivan, M. Applying the WHO ICF Framework to the Outcome Measures Used in the Evaluation of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Coronavirus Outbreaks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186476

AMA Style

Patel K, Straudi S, Yee Sien N, Fayed N, Melvin JL, Sivan M. Applying the WHO ICF Framework to the Outcome Measures Used in the Evaluation of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Coronavirus Outbreaks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186476

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Kajal, Sofia Straudi, Ng Yee Sien, Nora Fayed, John L. Melvin, and Manoj Sivan. 2020. "Applying the WHO ICF Framework to the Outcome Measures Used in the Evaluation of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Coronavirus Outbreaks" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186476

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