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Open AccessArticle

An Electromyographic Analysis of Lateral Raise Variations and Frontal Raise in Competitive Bodybuilders

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
IRCSS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, 20161 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176015
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 19 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Exercise/Training to Improve Physical Fitness and Health)
The present study examined the muscle activation in lateral raise with humerus rotated externally (LR-external), neutrally (LR-neutral), internally (LR-internal), with flexed elbow (LR-flexed) and frontal raise during both the concentric and eccentric phase. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed the exercises. Normalized surface electromyographic root mean square (sEMG RMS) was obtained from anterior, medial, and posterior deltoid, pectoralis major, upper trapezius, and triceps brachii. During the concentric phase, anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid showed greater sEMG RMS in frontal raise (effect size (ES)-range: 1.78/9.25)) and LR-internal (ES-range: 10.79/21.34), respectively, vs. all other exercises. Medial deltoid showed greater sEMG RMS in LR-neutral than LR-external (ES: 1.47 (95% confidence-interval—CI: 0.43/2.38)), frontal raise (ES: 10.28(95% CI: 6.67/13.01)), and LR-flexed (ES: 6.41(95% CI: 4.04/8.23)). Pectoralis major showed greater sEMG RMS in frontal raise vs. all other exercises (ES-range: 17.2/29.5), while upper trapezius (ES-range: 2.66/7.18) and triceps brachii (ES-range: 0.41/3.31) showed greater sEMG RMS in LR-internal vs. all other exercises. Similar recruitment patterns were found during the eccentric phase. When humerus rotates internally, greater activation of posterior deltoid, triceps brachii, and upper trapezius occurs. Humerus external rotation increases the activation of anterior and medial deltoid. Frontal raise mainly activates anterior deltoid and pectoralis major. LR variations and frontal raise activate specifically shoulders muscles and should be proposed accordingly. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle; EMG; deltoid; pectoralis major; upper trapezius; triceps brachii; resistance training; strength exercise muscle; EMG; deltoid; pectoralis major; upper trapezius; triceps brachii; resistance training; strength exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coratella, G.; Tornatore, G.; Longo, S.; Esposito, F.; Cè, E. An Electromyographic Analysis of Lateral Raise Variations and Frontal Raise in Competitive Bodybuilders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6015. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176015

AMA Style

Coratella G, Tornatore G, Longo S, Esposito F, Cè E. An Electromyographic Analysis of Lateral Raise Variations and Frontal Raise in Competitive Bodybuilders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6015. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coratella, Giuseppe; Tornatore, Gianpaolo; Longo, Stefano; Esposito, Fabio; Cè, Emiliano. 2020. "An Electromyographic Analysis of Lateral Raise Variations and Frontal Raise in Competitive Bodybuilders" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 17: 6015. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176015

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