Next Article in Journal
Negotiating Identity and Belonging in a New Space: Opportunities and Experiences of African Youths in South Australia
Next Article in Special Issue
Secondhand Smoke Correlates with Elevated Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio and Has a Synergistic Effect with Physical Inactivity on Increasing Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Community-Based Case Control Study
Previous Article in Journal
Epidemics of HIV Infection among Heavy Drug Users of Depressants Only, Stimulants Only, and Both Depressants and Stimulants in Mainland China: A Series, Cross-Sectional Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Age on Partial Clinical Remission among Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Gaseous Ozone Therapy in Conjunction with Periodontal Treatment on Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Unmasked Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, “Aldo Moro” University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
2
Complex Operative Unit of Odontostomatology, Hospital S.S. Annunziata, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
4
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, “Aldo Moro” University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
5
Ionian Department (DJSGEM), “Aldo Moro” University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
6
Department of Clinical Disciplines, School of Technical Medical Sciences, University A. Xhuvani, 3001 Elbasan, Albania
7
Department of Oral Science, Nano and Biotechnology and CeSi-Met University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
8
Department of Metabolic and Genetic Diseases, Giovanni XXIII Children’s Hospital, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antonio Scarano and Maurizio Delvecchio have thus to be equally regarded as co-last authors.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155467
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy)
Background: It is established that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) by promoting insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function in the pancreas. Among the hypothesized independent risk factors implicated in the pathogenetic basis of disease, periodontal infection has been proposed to promote an amplification of the magnitude of the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-mediated upregulation of cytokine synthesis and secretion. These findings suggest an interrelationship between periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes, describing poor metabolic control in subjects with periodontitis as compared to nondiabetic subjects and more severe periodontitis in subjects with T2DM as compared to a healthy population, with a significant positive correlation between periodontal inflammatory parameters and glycated hemoglobin level. Results from clinical trials show that periodontal treatment is able to improve glycemic control in subjects with diabetes. Many therapeutic strategies have been developed to improve periodontal conditions in conjunction with conventional treatment, among which ozone (O3) is of specific concern. The principal aim of this trial was to compare the clinical effectiveness of an intensive periodontal intervention consisting of conventional periodontal treatment in conjunction with ozone gas therapy in reducing glycated hemoglobin level in type 2 diabetic patients and standard periodontal treatment. Methods: This study was a 12-month unmasked randomized trial and included 100 patients aged 40–74 years older, with type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed. All the patients received conventional periodontal treatment, or periodontal treatment in conjunction with ozone gas therapy in a randomly assigned order (1:1). The primary outcome was a clinical measure of glycated hemoglobin level at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months from randomization. Secondary outcomes were changes in periodontal inflammatory parameters. Results: At 12 months, the periodontal treatment in conjunction with ozone gas therapy did not show significant differences than standard therapy in decreasing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level and the lack of significant differences in balance is evident. Conclusions: Although the change was not significant, periodontal treatment in conjunction with the gaseous ozone therapy tended to reduce the levels of glycated hemoglobin. The study shows a benefit with ozone therapy as compared to traditional periodontal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 Diabetes; periodontal disease; periodontitis; gaseous ozone therapy; periodontal treatment type 2 Diabetes; periodontal disease; periodontitis; gaseous ozone therapy; periodontal treatment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rapone, B.; Ferrara, E.; Corsalini, M.; Converti, I.; Grassi, F.R.; Santacroce, L.; Topi, S.; Gnoni, A.; Scacco, S.; Scarano, A.; Delvecchio, M. The Effect of Gaseous Ozone Therapy in Conjunction with Periodontal Treatment on Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Unmasked Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155467

AMA Style

Rapone B, Ferrara E, Corsalini M, Converti I, Grassi FR, Santacroce L, Topi S, Gnoni A, Scacco S, Scarano A, Delvecchio M. The Effect of Gaseous Ozone Therapy in Conjunction with Periodontal Treatment on Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Unmasked Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rapone, Biagio; Ferrara, Elisabetta; Corsalini, Massimo; Converti, Ilaria; Grassi, Felice R.; Santacroce, Luigi; Topi, Skender; Gnoni, Antonio; Scacco, Salvatore; Scarano, Antonio; Delvecchio, Maurizio. 2020. "The Effect of Gaseous Ozone Therapy in Conjunction with Periodontal Treatment on Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Unmasked Randomized Controlled Trial" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 15: 5467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155467

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop