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Open AccessArticle

Do Feelings of Defeat and Entrapment Change over Time? An Investigation of the Integrated Motivational—Volitional Model of Suicidal Behaviour Using Ecological Momentary Assessments

1
Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany
3
Department of Medical Psychology, University of Leipzig, 4109 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134685
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicidal Behavior as a Complex Dynamical System)
(1) Background. Defeat and entrapment have been highlighted as major risk factors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Nevertheless, little is known about their short-term variability and their longitudinal association in real-time. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether defeat and entrapment change over time and whether defeat predicts entrapment as stated by the integrated motivational–volitional model of suicidal behavior. (2) Methods. Healthy participants (n = 61) underwent a 7-day smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on suicidal ideation/behavior and relevant risk factors, including defeat and entrapment and a comprehensive baseline (T0) and post (T2) assessment. (3) Results. Mean squared successive differences (MSSD) and intraclass correlations (ICC) support the temporal instability as well as within-person variability of defeat and entrapment. Multilevel analyses revealed that during EMA, defeat was positively associated with entrapment at the same measurement. However, defeat could not predict entrapment to the next measurement (approximately two hours later). (4) Conclusion. This study provides evidence on the short-term variability of defeat and entrapment highlighting that repeated measurement of defeat and entrapment—preferably in real time—is necessary in order to adequately capture the actual empirical relations of these variables and not to overlook significant within-person variability. Further research—especially within clinical samples—seems warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: defeat; entrapment; suicide; suicidal ideation; ecological momentary assessment; integrated motivational–volitional model of suicidal behavior defeat; entrapment; suicide; suicidal ideation; ecological momentary assessment; integrated motivational–volitional model of suicidal behavior
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Stenzel, J.-S.; Höller, I.; Rath, D.; Hallensleben, N.; Spangenberg, L.; Glaesmer, H.; Forkmann, T. Do Feelings of Defeat and Entrapment Change over Time? An Investigation of the Integrated Motivational—Volitional Model of Suicidal Behaviour Using Ecological Momentary Assessments. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4685.

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