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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Lumbar and the Relation between Fat Mass and Lean Mass of Adolescents: Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) from 2008 to 2011

1
Department of Sport Leisure, Sungshin Women’s University, Bomun-ro 34da-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02844, Korea
2
Department of Health Exercise Management, Sungshin Women’s University, Bomun-ro 34da-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02844, Korea
3
Department of Nursing Health Institute of Technology, 21 Chungjeong-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34504, Korea
4
Liberal Arts, Woosuk University, 443, Samnye-ro, Samnye-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55338, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124471
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data, Decision Models, and Public Health)
It is most important to reach the maximum bone density in the childhood period to prevent developing osteoporosis; it is widely known that increased body weight has a positive correlation with bone density and that even though both the fat mass and lean mass have a significant impact on bone density, the latter mass has more importance for adults. Therefore, the study analyzed to identify the relationship between bone density and both fat mass and lean mass of Korean adolescents. Subjects were chosen among 21,303 people from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) between 2008 and 2011 that took a bone density checkup; as a result, 1454 teenagers aged between 12 and 18 were selected. Data analysis was performed in SAS ver. 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) following the KNHNES and the weighted complex sample analysis was conducted; body fat mass and lean mass were divided into quintile groups, and to figure out the differences in bone density that were analyzed in six models adjusted by body weight (kg) and walking (yes/no), muscle strengthening exercises (yes/no), nutrition (intake of ca (g), and serum vitamin D (ng/mL)). Then, the generalized linear model (GLM) and trend test were conducted for each gender with a significance level of 0.05. The bone density differences of fat mass and lean mass were analyzed. The result of Model 6 considering all correction variables is as follows; in the case of male adolescents, the total femur and lumbar spine showed a significant difference (F = 13.120, p < 0.001; F = 12.900, p < 0.001) for fat mass, and the trend test showed that the figures significantly decreased (β = −0.030, p < 0.001; −0.035, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, for lean mass, the total femur and lumbar spine had a significant difference (F = 16.740, p < 0.001; F = 20.590, p < 0.001) too, but the trend test showed a significant increase (β = 0.054, p < 0.001; 0.057, p < 0.001). In the case of female adolescents, the lumbar spine (F = 3.600, p < 0.05) for lean mass showed a significant difference, and it also significantly rose in the trend test too (β = 0.020, p < 0.01). To sum up the results, for male adolescents, the bone density differences for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) all had significant differences, but for female adolescents, only the lumbar spine for LM showed such a result. Meanwhile, both genders showed that LM had a more positive impact on bone density than FM. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral density; femur; lumbar; adolescents; big data bone mineral density; femur; lumbar; adolescents; big data
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, A.; Baek, S.; Park, S.; Shin, J. Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Lumbar and the Relation between Fat Mass and Lean Mass of Adolescents: Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) from 2008 to 2011. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124471

AMA Style

Kim A, Baek S, Park S, Shin J. Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Lumbar and the Relation between Fat Mass and Lean Mass of Adolescents: Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) from 2008 to 2011. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12):4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124471

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Aram; Baek, Seunghui; Park, Seyeon; Shin, Jieun. 2020. "Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Lumbar and the Relation between Fat Mass and Lean Mass of Adolescents: Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) from 2008 to 2011" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 12: 4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124471

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