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Open AccessArticle

Black–White Risk Differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) Transmission, Mortality and Case Fatality in the United States: Translational Epidemiologic Perspective and Challenges

1
Nemours Children’s Healthcare System, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA
2
Biological Sciences Department, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
3
Emergency Department, Thomas Jefferson University, College of population Health, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
4
Fellow of Translational Health Disparities Science (FTHDS), Wilmington, DE 19803, USA
5
Public Health Department, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA
6
Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, AL 36832, USA
7
Emergency Department, Victoria Hospital, Castries, St. Lucia
8
School of Nursing, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33139, USA
9
Global Health Services Initiatives Incorporated, Arlington, TX 76014 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124322
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
Background: Social and health inequities predispose vulnerable populations to adverse morbidity and mortality outcomes of epidemics and pandemics. While racial disparities in cumulative incidence (CmI) and mortality from the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 implicated Blacks with survival disadvantage relative to Whites in the United States, COVID-19 currently indicates comparable disparities. We aimed to: (a) assess COVID-19 CmI by race, (b) determine the Black–White case fatality (CF) and risk differentials, and (c) apply explanatory model for mortality risk differentials. Methods: COVID-19 data on confirmed cases and deaths by selective states health departments were assessed using a cross-sectional ecologic design. Chi-square was used for CF independence, while binomial regression model for the Black–White risk differentials. Results: The COVID-19 mortality CmI indicated Blacks/AA with 34% of the total mortality in the United States, albeit their 13% population size. The COVID-19 CF was higher among Blacks/AA relative to Whites; Maryland, (2.7% vs. 2.5%), Wisconsin (7.4% vs. 4.8%), Illinois (4.8% vs. 4.2%), Chicago (5.9% vs. 3.2%), Detroit (Michigan), 7.2% and St. John the Baptist Parish (Louisiana), 7.9%. Blacks/AA compared to Whites in Michigan were 15% more likely to die, CmI risk ratio (CmIRR) = 1.15, 95% CI, 1.01–1.32. Blacks/AA relative to Whites in Illinois were 13% more likely to die, CmIRR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.93–1.39, while Blacks/AA compared to Whites in Wisconsin were 51% more likely to die, CmIRR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.10–2.10. In Chicago, Blacks/AA were more than twice as likely to die, CmIRR = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.36–3.88. Conclusion: Substantial racial/ethnic disparities are observed in COVID-19 CF and mortality with Blacks/AA disproportionately affected across the United States. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 (SARS-COV2); race/ethnicity; case fatality; mortality; health disparities; United States COVID-19 (SARS-COV2); race/ethnicity; case fatality; mortality; health disparities; United States
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MDPI and ACS Style

Holmes, L., Jr.; Enwere, M.; Williams, J.; Ogundele, B.; Chavan, P.; Piccoli, T.; Chinaka, C.; Comeaux, C.; Pelaez, L.; Okundaye, O.; Stalnaker, L.; Kalle, F.; Deepika, K.; Philipcien, G.; Poleon, M.; Ogungbade, G.; Elmi, H.; John, V.; Dabney, K.W. Black–White Risk Differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) Transmission, Mortality and Case Fatality in the United States: Translational Epidemiologic Perspective and Challenges. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124322

AMA Style

Holmes L Jr., Enwere M, Williams J, Ogundele B, Chavan P, Piccoli T, Chinaka C, Comeaux C, Pelaez L, Okundaye O, Stalnaker L, Kalle F, Deepika K, Philipcien G, Poleon M, Ogungbade G, Elmi H, John V, Dabney KW. Black–White Risk Differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) Transmission, Mortality and Case Fatality in the United States: Translational Epidemiologic Perspective and Challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12):4322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Holmes, Laurens, Jr.; Enwere, Michael; Williams, Janille; Ogundele, Benjamin; Chavan, Prachi; Piccoli, Tatiana; Chinaka, Chinacherem; Comeaux, Camillia; Pelaez, Lavisha; Okundaye, Osatohamwen; Stalnaker, Leslie; Kalle, Fanta; Deepika, Keeti; Philipcien, Glen; Poleon, Maura; Ogungbade, Gbadebo; Elmi, Hikma; John, Valescia; Dabney, Kirk W. 2020. "Black–White Risk Differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) Transmission, Mortality and Case Fatality in the United States: Translational Epidemiologic Perspective and Challenges" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 12: 4322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124322

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