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Article

Emission-related Heavy Metal Associated with Oxidative Stress in Children: Effect of Antioxidant Intake

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Master of Public Health Degree Program, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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Innovation and Policy Center for Population Health and Sustainable Environment (Population Health Research Center, PHRC), College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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National Taiwan University Hospital, Yunlin Branch, No.579, Sec. 2, Yunlin Rd., Douliu City, Yunlin County 64041, Taiwan
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Department of Nutritional Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhang Dist., New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113920
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 30 May 2020 / Published: 1 June 2020
Heavy metals, the common pollutants emitted from industrial activities, are believed to cause harmful effects, partially through the mechanism of elevated oxidative stress, and antioxidant intake has been hypothesized to provide a potential protective effect against oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the heavy metal exposure and the associated oxidative damage of young children living near a petrochemical complex and to assess the protective effect of antioxidant intake. There were 168 children recruited from the kindergartens near a huge petrochemical complex, with 87 as the high exposure group and 81 as the low exposure group. Urinary concentrations of eleven metals were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and four biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The food frequency questionnaire was collected to assess participants’ intake of antioxidants. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine the predictors of metals for oxidative stress and to measure the beneficial effect of antioxidants. Weighted quantile sum regression was performed to determine the contributors among metals to the oxidative stress. Results showed that high exposure group had significantly higher concentrations of chromium, manganese, nickel, arsenic, strontium, cadmium, and lead when compared to those in low exposure group. There was no obviously difference on the total antioxidant intake and dietary profile between two groups. The elevated levels of two oxidative stress markers were significantly associated with most of the urinary metal concentrations in all study subjects after adjusting confounders, while no significant association was found between oxidative stress and antioxidant intake. Among the metals, mercury and strontium showed the dominated contributions for elevated levels of oxidative stress. It concluded that higher metal exposure was associated with elevated oxidative stress but with no protective effect by antioxidant intake among the young children residents near a petrochemical industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; young children; oxidative stress; antioxidants; industrial pollution heavy metals; young children; oxidative stress; antioxidants; industrial pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Killian, B.; Yuan, T.-H.; Tsai, C.-H.; Chiu, T.H.T.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chan, C.-C. Emission-related Heavy Metal Associated with Oxidative Stress in Children: Effect of Antioxidant Intake. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113920

AMA Style

Killian B, Yuan T-H, Tsai C-H, Chiu THT, Chen Y-H, Chan C-C. Emission-related Heavy Metal Associated with Oxidative Stress in Children: Effect of Antioxidant Intake. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):3920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Killian, Brittany, Tzu-Hsuen Yuan, Cheng-Hsien Tsai, Tina H. T. Chiu, Yi-Hsuan Chen, and Chang-Chuan Chan. 2020. "Emission-related Heavy Metal Associated with Oxidative Stress in Children: Effect of Antioxidant Intake" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 3920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113920

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