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Open AccessArticle

Sex Differences in Association of Elevated Blood Pressure with Variables Characterizing Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Subjects with or Without Metabolic Abnormalities

1
Institute of Molecular BioMedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Institute of Materials & Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 845 13 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103612
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 17 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Males present higher blood pressure (BP) values, higher prevalence of elevated BP, and a different prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors when compared with females. We assumed that the trends of risk markers across BP categories (normotension, high normal BP, and hypertension) differ in young males and females, and between subjects without metabolic abnormalities (without obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, or microinflammation) and those presenting them. Data from 2543 subjects (48% males) aged from 16 to 23 years were analyzed. The findings showed that 15% of males and 4% of females presented high normal BP while 9% and 1%, respectively, had hypertension. In males, variables characterizing obesity status, insulin sensitivity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, uric acid, adiponectin, a soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products, and leukocyte counts showed worsening trends across BP categories. Females presented significant trends only for obesity measures, LDL-cholesterol, and non-HDL-cholesterol. Across BP categories, trends of variables characterizing cardiometabolic risk differed among abnormalities-free and presenting males. The multivariate model selected measures of central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and uric acid as significant predictors of BP in both genders, and C-reactive protein in females. Sex differences in measures of cardiovascular health in juveniles may remain undiscovered unless two sexes are analyzed separately. These differences may have implications for sex-specific disease risk in adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk; hypertension; sex differences; sRAGE; metabolically healthy adolescents; cardiometabolic risk; hypertension; sex differences; sRAGE; metabolically healthy
MDPI and ACS Style

Šebeková, K.; Gurecká, R.; Csongová, M.; Koborová, I.; Šebek, J. Sex Differences in Association of Elevated Blood Pressure with Variables Characterizing Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Subjects with or Without Metabolic Abnormalities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3612.

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