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Factors Associated with Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Common Eye Diseases in General Population: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan

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Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
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Center for Drug Safety and Policy Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
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Shaanxi Centre for Health Reform and Development Research, Xi’an 710061, China
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Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia
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Organization for Rural Community Development, Dariapur, Narail 7500, Bangladesh
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Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of pharmaceutical Sciences, The Superior College, Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Pharmacy, Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091568
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
High prevalence of blindness coupled with low public awareness of eye diseases is a severe problem in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the awareness, attitude and practices related to common ocular problems and eye care use among general population of Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected cross-sectionally, using random selection of participants from five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data from January to March 2017. The ordinal data were converted to interval--based data by Rasch analysis, which is termed as “knowledge score” and ranges from −3 to +3. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, binary logistic regression and chi square analysis were performed to evaluate the data. Of the 2073 people contacted, 96.4% (2019) responded the interviewer. The mean (SD) age was 39.9 (11.4) years, majority were males (64.8%) and only 3.1% were illiterate. The majority (68.1%) of respondents were aware that blindness can be prevented and are least aware of age-related macular degradation (31.4%). Multivariate analysis to knowledge scores demonstrated that male gender (β = 0.53 95%CI = 0.39, 0.66, p < 0.001), higher education (β = 0.31 95%CI = 0.25, 0.37, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with knowledge score. Eighty-two percent of our respondents had a positive attitude towards health-seeking behavior and those who had adequate income on most of occasions were 1.82 (AOR = 1.82 95%CI = 1.26, 2.62 p = 0.001) times more prone towards health-seeking behavior than those who had insufficient income. Out of all respondents, 21.5% had an eye examination at least once a year and this frequency was significantly higher in lower age, females, high education and high Socio Economic Status level (p < 0.05). Among the general population of Pakistan, awareness about prevention of blindness and refractive error was optimum, while awareness of blindness causing eye conditions, like age-related macular degradation was low. Intensive improvements in the health literacy and public interventions—specifically in old age people, males and respondents with lower education—are urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; eye disease; Punjab Pakistan knowledge; attitude; practice; eye disease; Punjab Pakistan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, M.; Gillani, A.H.; Amirul Islam, F.M.; Ji, W.; Hayat, K.; Li, Z.; Akbar, J.; Ahmed, A.B.; Azam, A.; Masood, I.; Fang, Y. Factors Associated with Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Common Eye Diseases in General Population: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091568

AMA Style

Zhao M, Gillani AH, Amirul Islam FM, Ji W, Hayat K, Li Z, Akbar J, Ahmed AB, Azam A, Masood I, Fang Y. Factors Associated with Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Common Eye Diseases in General Population: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(9):1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Mingyue, Ali H. Gillani, Fakir M. Amirul Islam, Wenjing Ji, Khezar Hayat, Zongjie Li, Jamshaid Akbar, Abu B. Ahmed, Ans Azam, Imran Masood, and Yu Fang. 2019. "Factors Associated with Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Common Eye Diseases in General Population: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 9: 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091568

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