Between Privilege and Oppression: An Intersectional Analysis of Active Transportation Experiences Among Washington D.C. Area Youth
1.1. Transportation Inequity
1.2. Overweight/Obesity and Physical Inactivity
1.3. Active Transportation
1.4. Intersectionality Framework
2.1. Physical Environment and Active Transportation Study
2.2. PEAT Study Design
2.3. Study Site and Population Recruitment
2.4. Focus Group Discussions
2.5. Qualitative Data Analysis
2.6. Research Ethics
3.1. Active Transportation Behavior Themes
|VQ 1||“my friends want to walk everywhere and I don’t know why” (GG1)|
PR_A: “yeah you”
|VQ 2||“I use the school bus when I’m at my Dad’s house, so Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays” (GG2)|
|VQ 3||“Oh, my mom drives me around a lot. My brother, he’s twenty-eight, he can drive me” (BG1)|
|VQ 4||“Well, it’s what you just said. So if it’s a nice day, I just say I’ll walk instead. Or at least my mom forces me to walk” (BG2)|
|VQ 5||“…since I’m trying to work out more I sometimes walk over to the Safeway or something or walk over to like a certain place that she [Mom] needs to go” (GG2)|
PR_A: “I walk my dog for one hour”
|VQ 6||“If you walk, like maybe a mile or two to the nearest grocery store, you lose calories” (BG1)|
PR_A: Participant provided a “fist bump” hand gesture
|VQ 7||“Driving is our main priority, but if something happens to that car, we take the bus to the metro” (BG1)|
|VQ 8||“My Mom doesn’t let me go anywhere alone” (GG2)|
|VQ 9||“Um, I like sometimes like start walking somewhere or I think about walking somewhere and get ready for it but then I start thinking about which path I’m gonna take and which people are there cause sometimes there are those little tunnels that are under the street and stuff and there’s suspicious people there so my Mom’s like oh, I’m not sure if you should go that way so then I either change to do it later like I do something else” (GG2)|
|VQ 10||“[Sidewalks] Always clean? No” (GG1)|
“Oh sometimes when your crossing the street they don’t have lights on both sides, you know they could be going this way but there could only be a light going that way.” (GG1)
|VQ 11||“…or run or bike. Anyway I can…if there’s a close bike ride there” (BG2)|
|VQ 12||“Rain, that’s one thing. Because who wants to walk” (BG1)|
|VQ 13||“…um, I’ve started walking to the pool and then I had to go back because it started raining and before my stepdad has told me that it’s too hot to walk anywhere and you’ll have a heatstroke” (GG2)|
|VQ 14||“Yeah it’s like a 30 min walk” (GG1)|
|VQ 15||“…like after school there’s this like shopping center that’s close so then [friends] like encourage me to walk there but since I really am like lazy sometimes I don’t feel like walking” (GG2)|
3.2. Active Transportation Perception Themes
|VQ 16||“I do [AT] all the time. It’s all fun to do.” (BG1)|
|VQ 17||“…trying to be more active for the environment…and help with environment and pollution and stuff like that and health-wise” (GG1)|
|VQ 18||“…because like there’s no sidewalks on one of the streets.” (GG2)|
|VQ 19||“…all of these people being kidnapped and raped and murdered and stuff like that [Mom] automatically assumes that even if I walk for 5 min” (GG1)|
|VQ 20||“Like biking for fun is fine but I don’t like trying to bike somewhere because all those hills and stuff I just don’t like it” (GG1)|
|VQ 21||“a bus goes faster than like feet, cause I take 40 min to walk to school…” (GG2)|
|VQ 22||“as long as I’m with one other person then [AT] is okay” (GG1)|
PR_A: “I have to be with 15 people”
3.3. Intersectionality of Active Transportation Themes
|VQ 23||“My mom always tells me it’s not safe, I can’t be walking alone” (GG2)|
|VQ 24||“I bike a lot, go out in neighborhood. I walk a lot too… Just around the neighborhood. It’s fun” (BG1)|
|VQ 25||“I hop on my dirt bike and drop myself [off]” (BG2)|
|VQ 26||“well people [are] not safe to be honest they’re really mean…the neighborhood I live in they’re really racist because one time one of my friends were riding my bike and she actually went on his yard and he yelled at her for like no reason and he’s like get the blank off my yard like what the blank are you doing, stuff like that…Yeah, [he said something racist]” (GG1)|
PR_EVERYONE: Nervous Laughter
|VQ 27||“Yeah, it’s better to not walk at night” (BG1)|
|VQ 28||“I mean my neighborhood’s pretty safe so really like everyone else in our neighborhood is like up here on the money scale and we’re like down here so” (GG1)|
|VQ 29||“Yeah. Or like when I sometimes like try [to AT] and [they] want me to go bike riding with them but I don’t have a bike, but they keep forgetting that.” (GG2)|
|VQ 30||“I’d have to take the bus, like the public bus to school because my Mom didn’t have a car” (GG2)|
4.1. Active Transportation—An Unwelcomed Choice
4.2. Boys of Color vs. Girls of Color
4.3. We’re Moving on Up—Perceptions of Upward Mobility
4.4. Impacts on Physical Activity and Obesity
4.5. Strengths and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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Roberts, J.D.; Mandic, S.; Fryer, C.S.; Brachman, M.L.; Ray, R. Between Privilege and Oppression: An Intersectional Analysis of Active Transportation Experiences Among Washington D.C. Area Youth. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081313
Roberts JD, Mandic S, Fryer CS, Brachman ML, Ray R. Between Privilege and Oppression: An Intersectional Analysis of Active Transportation Experiences Among Washington D.C. Area Youth. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(8):1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081313Chicago/Turabian Style
Roberts, Jennifer D., Sandra Mandic, Craig S. Fryer, Micah L. Brachman, and Rashawn Ray. 2019. "Between Privilege and Oppression: An Intersectional Analysis of Active Transportation Experiences Among Washington D.C. Area Youth" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 8: 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081313