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Clinical Evaluation of Sarcoidosis in Community Members with World Trade Center Dust Exposure

1
Department of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
2
Department of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071291
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster)
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Abstract

Background: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease involving intrathoracic and extrathoracic organs. Genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to World-Trade Center (WTC) dust after 9/11, may play a role in clinical presentation. Characterization of sarcoidosis in community members with exposure to the WTC dust can provide further insight into the relationship between environmental exposure and sarcoidosis. Methods: Patients with documented sarcoidosis were identified in the WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC), a treatment program for community members. Demographic and clinical data were collected from standardized questionnaires and chart review. Organ involvement was assessed with a standard instrument. Results: Among patients in the WTC EHC, 87 were identified with sarcoidosis after 9/11. Sarcoidosis cases were more likely African-American, local workers, and had more respiratory symptoms, compared with non-sarcoidosis WTC EHC patients. Many (46%) had ≥ Scadding stage 3 on chest imaging, and had reduced lung function measures. Extrathoracic involvement was identified in 33/87 (38%) with a diversity of organs involved. Conclusions: WTC-exposed sarcoidosis in community members is often characterized by severe pulmonary disease and a high rate of diverse extrathoracic involvement. Further analysis is required to characterize the course of disease progression or resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcoidosis; World Trade Center (WTC); Scadding stage; lung function; severe lung disease; extrathoracic sarcoidosis; cardiac sarcoidosis sarcoidosis; World Trade Center (WTC); Scadding stage; lung function; severe lung disease; extrathoracic sarcoidosis; cardiac sarcoidosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hena, K.M.; Murphy, S.; Zhang, Y.; Shao, Y.; Kazeros, A.; Reibman, J. Clinical Evaluation of Sarcoidosis in Community Members with World Trade Center Dust Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1291.

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