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Open AccessArticle

Clinical Evaluation of Sarcoidosis in Community Members with World Trade Center Dust Exposure

1
Department of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
2
Department of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071291
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster)
Background: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease involving intrathoracic and extrathoracic organs. Genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to World-Trade Center (WTC) dust after 9/11, may play a role in clinical presentation. Characterization of sarcoidosis in community members with exposure to the WTC dust can provide further insight into the relationship between environmental exposure and sarcoidosis. Methods: Patients with documented sarcoidosis were identified in the WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC), a treatment program for community members. Demographic and clinical data were collected from standardized questionnaires and chart review. Organ involvement was assessed with a standard instrument. Results: Among patients in the WTC EHC, 87 were identified with sarcoidosis after 9/11. Sarcoidosis cases were more likely African-American, local workers, and had more respiratory symptoms, compared with non-sarcoidosis WTC EHC patients. Many (46%) had ≥ Scadding stage 3 on chest imaging, and had reduced lung function measures. Extrathoracic involvement was identified in 33/87 (38%) with a diversity of organs involved. Conclusions: WTC-exposed sarcoidosis in community members is often characterized by severe pulmonary disease and a high rate of diverse extrathoracic involvement. Further analysis is required to characterize the course of disease progression or resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcoidosis; World Trade Center (WTC); Scadding stage; lung function; severe lung disease; extrathoracic sarcoidosis; cardiac sarcoidosis sarcoidosis; World Trade Center (WTC); Scadding stage; lung function; severe lung disease; extrathoracic sarcoidosis; cardiac sarcoidosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Hena, K.M.; Murphy, S.; Zhang, Y.; Shao, Y.; Kazeros, A.; Reibman, J. Clinical Evaluation of Sarcoidosis in Community Members with World Trade Center Dust Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1291.

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