Next Article in Journal
Social Vulnerability in Patients with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Under-Five Mortality and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (2001–2016)
Article Menu
Issue 7 (April-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Industrial Odor Source Identification Based on Wind Direction and Social Participation

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Colorado Boulder, Sustainability, Energy and Environment Complex, East Campus, 4001 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1242;
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
PDF [3582 KB, uploaded 9 April 2019]


Industrial odors have been a major concern in many communities in Colorado (USA). Odor source identification is important for any mitigation strategy. The aim of this work was to identify odor sources using wind direction and odor data collected by social participation. For more than one year residents reported time, date, location and description of the odor occurrence by means of a smartphone technology. The odor spatial distribution and wind roses generated from local stations were used to identify odor sources. The majority of odor reports happened in North Denver (57%) and Greeley (33%). North Denver analysis showed that a single facility that manufactures pet food was responsible for the pet food odor (the most reported odor, 81 reports). Dead animal and sewage odors were associated with a North Denver meat and grease recycling facility, and the Metro Wastewater treatment plant, respectively. Roofing tar odor was probably associated with a facility that treats crossties and utility poles with creosote. Another odor that was often described as a refinery odor was less likely to be associated with the Denver oil refinery and more likely to be associated with one of the four facilities in the northwest of Globeville that uses asphalt and creosote materials. In Greeley, most reports (133 reports) happened in LaSalle, a small town in the southern part of Greeley. All reports from LaSalle described one offensive odor that was produced by a biogas facility east of LaSalle. The feasibility of odor source identification using wind direction and social participation was demonstrated. A regional cooperation to reduce odor problems in North Denver is highly recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: odor source identification; social participation; sensory methods; wind direction; smartphone odor source identification; social participation; sensory methods; wind direction; smartphone

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Eltarkawe, M.; Miller, S. Industrial Odor Source Identification Based on Wind Direction and Social Participation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1242.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top