Role of Emerging Environmental Risk Factors in Thyroid Cancer: A Brief Review
Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA), Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, “G.F. Ingrassia”, Section of Anatomic Pathology, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of General Surgery and Specialty Medical Surgery, Endocrine surgery, A.O.U. Policlinico—Vittorio Emanuele P.O. G. Rodolico, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Specializaton School, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, “G.F. Ingrassia”, 95123 Catania, Italy
Chirugia Generale, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, “G.F. Ingrassia”, 95123 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071185
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salutogenic Cities for Chronic Diseases Prevention)
Environmental factors are recognized as risk factors of thyroid cancer in humans. Exposure to radiation, both from nuclear weapon or fallout or medical radiation, and to some organic and inorganic chemical toxicants represent a worldwide public health issue for their proven carcinogenicity. Halogenated compounds, such as organochlorines and pesticides, are able to disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid, transport proteins, replace thyroxin, and disrupt thyroid function as phthalates and bisphenolates do, highly mimicking thyroid hormones. A better knowledge of environmental risks represents a very important tool for cancer prevention through true risks prevention and management. This approach is very important because of the epigenetic origin’s theory of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this review was study the association between environmental agents and thyroid cancer promotion.