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Model of Risk of Exposure to Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus-Infected Ticks in the Border Area of the Czech Republic (South Bohemia) and Germany (Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate)

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Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 296, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Geoinformatics, VSB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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GeoHealth Laboratory, Geospatial Research Institute, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Faculty of Economics, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Institute of Comparative Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Leopoldstr. 5, 80802 Munich, Germany
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Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071173
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ticks and Tick Vectored Diseases—Biology to Society)
In Europe, Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the two vector-borne diseases with the largest impact on human health. Based on data on the density of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks and pathogen prevalence and using a variety of environmental data, we have created an acarological risk model for a region where both diseases are endemic (Czech Republic—South Bohemia and Germany—Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate). The data on tick density were acquired by flagging 50 sampling sites three times in a single season. Prevalence of the causative agents of LB and TBE was determined. Data on environmental variables (e.g., altitude, vegetation cover, NDVI, land surface temperature) were obtained from various sources and processed using geographical information systems. Generalized linear models were used to estimate tick density, probability of tick infection, and density of infected ticks for the whole area. A significantly higher incidence of human TBE cases was recorded in South Bohemia compared to Bavarian regions, which correlated with a lower tick density in Bavaria. However, the differences in pathogen prevalence rates were not significant. The model outputs were made available to the public in the form of risk maps, indicating the distribution of tick-borne disease risk in space. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick; Lyme borreliosis; tick-borne encephalitis; Ixodes ricinus; risk modeling; geographical information systems tick; Lyme borreliosis; tick-borne encephalitis; Ixodes ricinus; risk modeling; geographical information systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hönig, V.; Švec, P.; Marek, L.; Mrkvička, T.; Dana, Z.; Wittmann, M.; Masař, O.; Szturcová, D.; Růžek, D.; Pfister, K.; Grubhoffer, L. Model of Risk of Exposure to Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus-Infected Ticks in the Border Area of the Czech Republic (South Bohemia) and Germany (Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071173

AMA Style

Hönig V, Švec P, Marek L, Mrkvička T, Dana Z, Wittmann M, Masař O, Szturcová D, Růžek D, Pfister K, Grubhoffer L. Model of Risk of Exposure to Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus-Infected Ticks in the Border Area of the Czech Republic (South Bohemia) and Germany (Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071173

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hönig, Václav, Pavel Švec, Lukáš Marek, Tomáš Mrkvička, Zubriková Dana, Maria Wittmann, Ondřej Masař, Daniela Szturcová, Daniel Růžek, Kurt Pfister, and Libor Grubhoffer. 2019. "Model of Risk of Exposure to Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus-Infected Ticks in the Border Area of the Czech Republic (South Bohemia) and Germany (Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071173

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