Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review of Data Collection Techniques Used to Measure Preschool Children’s Knowledge of and Preference for Physical Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Taekwondo Enhances Cognitive Function as a Result of Increased Neurotrophic Growth Factors in Elderly Women
Article Menu
Issue 6 (March-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060963

Research to Move Toward Evidence-Based Recommendations for Lead Service Line Disclosure Policies in Home Buying and Home Renting Scenarios

1
Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
Office of Chief Scientist, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY 10010, USA
3
Program in Environmental Health, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC 20009, USA
4
Department of Communication, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
  |  
PDF [1215 KB, uploaded 18 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Lead service lines (LSLs)—lead pipes connecting the water main under the street to a building’s plumbing—contribute an estimated 50% to 75% of lead in tap water when they are present. Although Congress banned lead in plumbing materials in 1986, over 6 million LSLs remain in homes across the United States today. This paper summarizes three different home buying or renting scenario-based experimental studies used to evaluate disclosure styles, to assess if these influenced respondents’ perceived risk of the LSL in a home, and their willingness to act. In renting scenarios, having landlords disclose the presence of an LSL, but also provide water test results showing lead levels below the EPA’s lead action level resulted in lower levels of perceived risk, and of willingness to act. In seller-disclosure home buying scenarios, levels of perceived risk and willingness to act were consistently high, and three different disclosure styles did not differentially influence those outcomes. In home inspector-disclosure home buying scenarios, levels of perceived risk and willingness to act were high, but having explicit recommendations to replace LSLs and/or information about risk did not further influence those outcomes. In some cases, including the specific recommendations backfired. Implications for policy and regulation are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead service lines; scenario-based experiment; property disclosure style; home inspector; risk perception lead service lines; scenario-based experiment; property disclosure style; home inspector; risk perception
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, H.; Romero-Canyas, R.; Hiltner, S.; Neltner, T.; McCormick, L.; Niederdeppe, J. Research to Move Toward Evidence-Based Recommendations for Lead Service Line Disclosure Policies in Home Buying and Home Renting Scenarios. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 963.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top