Alternative and innovative fuel types are being introduced to power cars. These include liquified petroleum gas (LPG) gas and hydrogen energy sources. However, they also introduce new hazards, requiring revised thinking with respect to safety within car parking environments. One of the most significant dangers is accidental gas release from a car’s system, especially in underground car parks. Jet fan systems are widely used for ventilation of such enclosures, but currently their design is most often based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) according to computer simulations that may not be relevant for such new fuels. This paper presents the results of full-scale tests which demonstrate the operational factors of jet fan ventilation systems, and assesses the conditions which can occur in a car park when a small volume of LPG is released. On the basis of measurements undertaken, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software was validated against the air velocity flows and LPG gas dispersion patterns. Finally, the simulations were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of systems in an actual car park, in the case of an accidental LPG car tank release.
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