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Can an Exercise-Based Educational and Motivational Intervention be Durably Effective in Changing Compliance to Physical Activity and Anthropometric Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes? A Follow-Up Study

1
Department of Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, University of Naples “Parthenope”, 80133 Naples, Italy
2
Metro Detroit Diabetes and Endocrinology, Southfield, MI 48034, USA
3
Department of Civil Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050701
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Aims. A nine-month motivational exercise-based intervention was previously offered to subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A year after the end of the intervention, compliance to physical activity (PA) and anthropometric indices of participants were analyzed to evaluate the durability of its effects. Methods. PA levels, expressed as total energy expenditure per week, were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Hip Index (HI) z-scores, the relative mortality risk related to each of these measures, and a combined Anthropometric Risk Index (ARI) were also evaluated. Results. Of a total of the 52 subjects examined (67.9% males, mean age 61.8 ± 6.0), 46 (88.4%) were still sufficiently active as defined by IPAQ thresholds at follow-up. PA levels, anthropometric indices and related risks improved at follow-up in respect to the baseline and to the end of the intervention, although only PA levels, BMI and related measures, and ARI risk changed significantly. Habitual PA increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.01) and this increase correlated with changes in BMI z-scores (r = −0.29, p = 0.04). BMI risk was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in participants still active at follow-up. Conclusions. This study testifies to the persistence of compliance to PA and health benefits of a combined exercise-based and motivational intervention in subjects with T2D. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; anthropometric risk; type 2 diabetes physical activity; anthropometric risk; type 2 diabetes
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Gallè, F.; Krakauer, J.C.; Krakauer, N.Y.; Valerio, G.; Liguori, G. Can an Exercise-Based Educational and Motivational Intervention be Durably Effective in Changing Compliance to Physical Activity and Anthropometric Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes? A Follow-Up Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 701.

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