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Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Urban Areas of Xiangtan, Central South China

1
School of Resource, Environment and Safety Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China
2
Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Station of Xiangtan, Xiangtan 411100, China
3
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
4
Epsom Gateways, Atkins, Epsom KT18 5AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040539
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Xiangtan, South China, is characterized by year-round high relative humidity and very low wind speeds. To assess levels of PM2.5, daily samples were collected from 2016 to 2017 at two urban sites. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 were in the range of 30–217 µg/m3, with the highest concentrations in winter and the lowest in spring. Major water-soluble ions (WSIIs) and total carbon (TC) accounted for 58–59% and 21–24% of the PM2.5 mass, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42−, NO3, and NH4+) dominated the WSIIs and accounted for 73% and 74% at the two sites. The concentrations of K, Fe, Al, Sb, Ca, Zn, Mg, Pb, Ba, As, and Mn in the PM2.5 at the two sites were higher than 40 ng/m3, and decreased in the order of winter > autumn > spring. Enrichment factor analysis indicates that Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb mainly originates from anthropogenic sources. Source apportionment analysis showed that secondary inorganic aerosols, vehicle exhaust, coal combustion and secondary aerosols, fugitive dust, industrial emissions, steel industry are the major sources of PM2.5, contributing 25–27%, 21–22%, 19–21%, 16–18%, 6–9%, and 8–9% to PM2.5 mass. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; chemical components; source apportionment; positive matrix factorization (PMF); Xiangtan City PM2.5; chemical components; source apportionment; positive matrix factorization (PMF); Xiangtan City
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, X.; Xiao, Z.; He, L.; Shi, Z.; Cao, Y.; Tian, Z.; Vu, T.; Liu, J. Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Urban Areas of Xiangtan, Central South China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040539

AMA Style

Ma X, Xiao Z, He L, Shi Z, Cao Y, Tian Z, Vu T, Liu J. Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Urban Areas of Xiangtan, Central South China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(4):539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Xiaoyao; Xiao, Zhenghui; He, Lizhi; Shi, Zongbo; Cao, Yunjiang; Tian, Zhe; Vu, Tuan; Liu, Jisong. 2019. "Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Urban Areas of Xiangtan, Central South China" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 4: 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040539

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