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Open AccessArticle

Psycho-Physiological Effects of a Peony-Viewing Program on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals at Different Phenological Stages

College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030439
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
To address the question of whether the behavior of humans to view different phenological peony flowers has various effects on their physical and mental parameters, we investigated psycho-physiological responses of 74 participants (61.3 ± 10.78 years old) to environments of pre- and post-viewing tree peonies at four stages, including the exhibition leaf stage (ELS), initial bloom stage (IBS), full bloom stage (FBS), and terminal bloom stage (TBS). Physiological factors were examined using systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fingertip pulse (FP), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), and psychological evaluation, which was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The results indicated that the SBP, DBP, HR, and FP levels of participants were significantly reduced after viewing tree peonies, whereas no remarkable alterations in SpO2 were found. The POMS scores of anger–hostility (A–H), fatigue–inertia (F–I), tension–anxiety (T–A), confusion–bewilderment (C–B), and depression–dejection (D–D) were significantly lower, but of vigor–activity (V–A) was higher post-viewing than pre-viewing. Furthermore, participants exhibited markedly decreased anxiety levels according to the STAI. Notably, the changes in measurement indices were more pronounced at the FBS. Our studies demonstrated that a short peony-viewing program, especially at the FBS with completely opened and large tree peony flowers, would be a promising therapeutic method for improving physiological functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree peonies; phenological period; campus environment; biofeedback therapy; Profile of Mood States; State–Trait Anxiety Inventory; middle-aged and elderly tree peonies; phenological period; campus environment; biofeedback therapy; Profile of Mood States; State–Trait Anxiety Inventory; middle-aged and elderly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, R.-L.; Zhang, G.; Wang, X.; Zhang, B.-T.; Guo, L.-N.; Niu, L.-X.; Zhang, Y.-L. Psycho-Physiological Effects of a Peony-Viewing Program on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals at Different Phenological Stages. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030439

AMA Style

Zhao R-L, Zhang G, Wang X, Zhang B-T, Guo L-N, Niu L-X, Zhang Y-L. Psycho-Physiological Effects of a Peony-Viewing Program on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals at Different Phenological Stages. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):439. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Ren-Lin; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Bo-Tong; Guo, Li-Na; Niu, Li-Xin; Zhang, Yan-Long. 2019. "Psycho-Physiological Effects of a Peony-Viewing Program on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals at Different Phenological Stages" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 3: 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030439

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