Does Nut Consumption Reduce Mortality and/or Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease? An Updated Review Based on Meta-Analyses
Department of Food and Nutrition/Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244957
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
Aim We aimed to determine if nut consumption decreases mortality and/or the risk of cardiometabolic diseases based on updated meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies. Methods. An updated electronic search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library databases for original meta-analyses to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease in humans. Results. Seven new meta-analyses were included in this updated review. Findings similar to our previous review were observed, showing that nut consumption significantly decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (−19% to −25%; n = 4), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (−24% to −30%; n = 3), stroke mortality (−17% to −18%; n = 3), CVD incidence (−15% to −19 %; n = 4), CHD [or coronary artery disease (CAD)] incidence (−17% to −34%; n = 8), and stroke incidence (−10% to −11%; n = 6) comparing high with low categories of nut consumption. Fasting glucose levels (0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L; n = 6), total cholesterol (TC; 0.021 to 0.30 mmol/L; n = 10), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L; n = 10) were significantly decreased with nut consumption compared with control diets. Body weight and blood pressure were not significantly affected by nut consumption. Conclusion. Nut consumption appears to exert a protective effect on cardiometabolic disease, possibly through improved concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-C.