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Review

Does Nut Consumption Reduce Mortality and/or Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease? An Updated Review Based on Meta-Analyses

1
Department of Food and Nutrition/Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244957
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
Aim We aimed to determine if nut consumption decreases mortality and/or the risk of cardiometabolic diseases based on updated meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies. Methods. An updated electronic search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library databases for original meta-analyses to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease in humans. Results. Seven new meta-analyses were included in this updated review. Findings similar to our previous review were observed, showing that nut consumption significantly decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (−19% to −25%; n = 4), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (−24% to −30%; n = 3), stroke mortality (−17% to −18%; n = 3), CVD incidence (−15% to −19 %; n = 4), CHD [or coronary artery disease (CAD)] incidence (−17% to −34%; n = 8), and stroke incidence (−10% to −11%; n = 6) comparing high with low categories of nut consumption. Fasting glucose levels (0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L; n = 6), total cholesterol (TC; 0.021 to 0.30 mmol/L; n = 10), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L; n = 10) were significantly decreased with nut consumption compared with control diets. Body weight and blood pressure were not significantly affected by nut consumption. Conclusion. Nut consumption appears to exert a protective effect on cardiometabolic disease, possibly through improved concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. View Full-Text
Keywords: meta-analyses; nuts; cardiometabolic disease; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; fasting blood glucose meta-analyses; nuts; cardiometabolic disease; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; fasting blood glucose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.; Keogh, J.B.; Clifton, P.M. Does Nut Consumption Reduce Mortality and/or Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease? An Updated Review Based on Meta-Analyses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244957

AMA Style

Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Does Nut Consumption Reduce Mortality and/or Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease? An Updated Review Based on Meta-Analyses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(24):4957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244957

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Yoona, Jennifer B. Keogh, and Peter M. Clifton 2019. "Does Nut Consumption Reduce Mortality and/or Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease? An Updated Review Based on Meta-Analyses" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 24: 4957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244957

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