Next Article in Journal
Performance Factors in Dinghy Sailing: Laser Class
Next Article in Special Issue
Benefits of A Three-Day Bamboo Forest Therapy Session on the Psychophysiology and Immune System Responses of Male College Students
Previous Article in Journal
How Much Is Too Much? The Influence of Work Hours on Social Development: An Empirical Analysis for OECD Countries
Previous Article in Special Issue
Designing Supportive Soundscapes for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia
Open AccessArticle

Density of Green Spaces and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the City of Madrid: The Heart Healthy Hoods Study

1
Public Health and Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Madrid, Spain
2
Servicio de Medicina Preventiva y Gestión de Calidad, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain
3
Urban Health Collaborative, Drexel Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
4
Servicio de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, 28031 Madrid, Spain
5
ISGlobal, Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
6
Department of Biomedicine, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002 Barcelona, Spain
7
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
8
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244918
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the density of green spaces at different buffer sizes (300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m) and cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) as well as to study if the relationship is different for males and females. We conducted cross-sectional analyses using the baseline measures of the Heart Healthy Hoods study (N = 1625). We obtained data on the outcomes from clinical diagnoses, as well as anthropometric and blood sample measures. Exposure data on green spaces density at different buffer sizes were derived from the land cover distribution map of Madrid. Results showed an association between the density of green spaces within 300 and 500 m buffers with high cholesterol and diabetes, and an association between the density of green spaces within 1500 m buffer with hypertension. However, all of these associations were significant only in women. Study results, along with other evidence, may help policy-makers creating healthier environments that could reduce cardiovascular disease burden and reduce gender health inequities. Further research should investigate the specific mechanisms behind the differences by gender and buffer size of the relationship between green spaces and cardiovascular risk factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: green spaces; cardiovascular risk factors; gender; obesity; hypercholesterolemia; hypertension; diabetes green spaces; cardiovascular risk factors; gender; obesity; hypercholesterolemia; hypertension; diabetes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Plans, E.; Gullón, P.; Cebrecos, A.; Fontán, M.; Díez, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Franco, M. Density of Green Spaces and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the City of Madrid: The Heart Healthy Hoods Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4918.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop