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Open AccessArticle

Patient Satisfaction in the Spanish National Health Service: Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling

Department of Economics and Business, University of Almería, 04120 Almeria, Spain
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244886
Received: 14 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
The aim of this article was to determine which key indicators influence patient satisfaction with the Spanish NHS to provide useful information for policy decision-making. A total of 33 variables for each of the 17 Spanish autonomous communities were collected from the statistical portal of the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality between 2005 and 2016. A cross-sectional study was applied using Partial Least Squares to a Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). The influence of expenditures, resource allocation, and safety were hypothesized about patient satisfaction. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and life expectancy were used as control variables. Moreover, the influence of resource allocation on use was tested. The model explained 57.1% of patient satisfaction with the Spanish NHS. It was positively influenced mainly by resource allocation and expenditures, followed by safety and life expectancy. Additionally, resources directly influenced the level of use. The number of hospital beds, hemodialysis equipment, rate of adverse drug reactions, and expenditure positively influenced patient satisfaction. In contrast, the number of posts in day hospitals, the hospital infection rate, and the percentage of pharmacy spending negatively influenced patient satisfaction.
Keywords: National Health Service; patient satisfaction; health policy; quality of healthcare; partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) National Health Service; patient satisfaction; health policy; quality of healthcare; partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
MDPI and ACS Style

del Carmen Valls Martínez, M.; Ramírez-Orellana, A. Patient Satisfaction in the Spanish National Health Service: Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4886.

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