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Open AccessCommunication

Toxicity of Thallium at Low Doses: A Review

National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Institute of Chemistry of Organo Metallic Compounds-ICCOM, 56124 Pisa, Italy
CNR Neuroscience Institute, Area della Ricerca CNR, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Hematology Unit, Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
International Society of Doctors for Environment (ISDE), 52100 Arezzo, Italy
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4732;
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 23 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology and Public Health)
A mini review of the toxicity of Thallium (Tl) at low doses is herein presented. Thallium has severe toxicity. Although its acute biological effects have been widely investigated and are well known, its biological effects on human health and in cell cultures at low doses (<100 μg/L) due, for example, to Tl chronic exposure via consumption of contaminated water or foods, have often been overlooked or underestimated. Relatively few papers have been published on this topic and are herein reviewed to provide a focused scientific opinion in the light of current worldwide regulatory issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: thallium; emerging contaminant; low dose effects; human health thallium; emerging contaminant; low dose effects; human health
MDPI and ACS Style

Campanella, B.; Colombaioni, L.; Benedetti, E.; Di Ciaula, A.; Ghezzi, L.; Onor, M.; D’Orazio, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Petrini, R.; Bramanti, E. Toxicity of Thallium at Low Doses: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4732.

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