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Review

Household Contamination with Methamphetamine: Knowledge and Uncertainties

1
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2
Environmental Risk Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2118, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234676
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 23 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Contamination of residential homes with methamphetamine is an emerging issue of significant concern to public health. Cooking or smoking methamphetamine in a residential property contaminates the house, furnishings and personal possessions within it, with subsequent exposure through ingestion, dermal absorption and/or inhalation causing adverse health effects. Current guidelines identifying levels of methamphetamine contamination that require remediation vary between countries. There is also no international standard protocol for measuring levels of contamination and research has shown that different materials give rise to different recovery rates of methamphetamine. There are a number of currently used remediation methods; however, they have varying levels of success with limited studies comparing their long-term efficacies. Most importantly, there are few guidelines available that are based on a transparent, health risk-based approach, and there are many uncertainties on exposures and health effects, making it difficult to ensure the health of people residing in homes that have been used to cook or smoke methamphetamine are sufficiently protected. This manuscript presents the current state of knowledge regarding the contamination of residential homes with methamphetamine and identifies the current gaps in knowledge and priority areas for future research. The current regulatory approach to public health protection associated with exposure to residential premises contaminated with methamphetamine in Australia, New Zealand and the USA is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: methamphetamine; guidelines; health risk; third-hand exposure; house; home methamphetamine; guidelines; health risk; third-hand exposure; house; home
MDPI and ACS Style

Kuhn, E.J.; Walker, G.S.; Whiley, H.; Wright, J.; Ross, K.E. Household Contamination with Methamphetamine: Knowledge and Uncertainties. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234676

AMA Style

Kuhn EJ, Walker GS, Whiley H, Wright J, Ross KE. Household Contamination with Methamphetamine: Knowledge and Uncertainties. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(23):4676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuhn, Emma J.; Walker, G. S.; Whiley, Harriet; Wright, Jackie; Ross, Kirstin E. 2019. "Household Contamination with Methamphetamine: Knowledge and Uncertainties" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 23: 4676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234676

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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