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Article

The Current and Retrospective Intentional Nature Exposure Scales: Development and Factorial Validity

1
School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W6UW, UK
2
Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
School of Social Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W6UW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224443
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Both nature exposure and green exercise (GE) can improve health. However, there are no scales examining frequency of engagement; or that consider interaction with nature. There are also no scales assessing these variables during childhood. The aim of this study was to develop a modified (NES-II) and retrospective (RNES-II) version of the Nature Exposure Scale to incorporate GE and to examine their factor structure and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) explored the factor structure of the scales; followed by confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the model fit. Fit indices for the one factor five item NES-II and RNES-II models identified by EFA were poor. Use of modification indices resulted in a good model fit; NES-II: χ(5, n = 385) = 2.638; χnormed = 0.879; CFI= 1.000; RMSEA < 0.001 with 90%CI = 0.000–0.082; SRMR = 0.009; AIC = 36.638. RNES-II: χ(2, n = 385) = 7.149; χnormed = 3.574; CFI = 0.995; RMSEA = 0.082 with 90%CI = 0.023–0.151; SRMR = 0.015; AIC = 43.149. Both models demonstrated very good reliability (α = 0.84; 89 respectively). These findings indicate that the scales can be used to assess current and retrospective nature exposure. However, due to the removal of item one, the authors recommend that the scales be named the ‘intentional nature exposure scale’ and ‘retrospective intentional nature exposure scale’. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature; physical activity; green exercise nature; physical activity; green exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wood, C.; Barron, D.; Smyth, N. The Current and Retrospective Intentional Nature Exposure Scales: Development and Factorial Validity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224443

AMA Style

Wood C, Barron D, Smyth N. The Current and Retrospective Intentional Nature Exposure Scales: Development and Factorial Validity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(22):4443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wood, Carly, David Barron, and Nina Smyth. 2019. "The Current and Retrospective Intentional Nature Exposure Scales: Development and Factorial Validity" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 22: 4443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224443

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