Optimal strategies for the management of coastal groundwater resources can be derived using coupled simulation-optimization based management models. However, the management strategy actually implemented on the field sometimes deviates from the recommended optimal strategy, resulting in field-level deviations. Monitoring these field-level deviations during actual implementation of the recommended optimal management strategy and sequentially updating the management model using the feedback information is an important step towards efficient adaptive management of coastal groundwater resources. In this study, a three-phase adaptive management framework for a coastal aquifer subjected to saltwater intrusion is applied and evaluated for a regional-scale coastal aquifer study area. The methodology adopted includes three sequential components. First, an optimal management strategy (consisting of groundwater extraction from production and barrier wells) is derived and implemented for optimal management of the aquifer. The implemented management strategy is obtained by solving a homogenous ensemble-based coupled simulation-optimization model. Second, a regional-scale optimal monitoring network is designed for the aquifer system considering possible user noncompliance of a recommended management strategy, and uncertainties in estimating aquifer parameters. A new monitoring network design objective function is formulated to ensure that candidate monitoring wells are placed in high risk (highly contaminated) locations. In addition, a new methodology is utilized to select candidate monitoring wells in areas representative of the entire model domain. Finally, feedback information in the form of measured concentrations obtained from the designed optimal monitoring wells is used to sequentially modify pumping strategies for future time periods in the management horizon. The developed adaptive management framework is evaluated by applying it to the Bonriki aquifer system located in Kiribati, which is a small developing island country in the South Pacific region. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the implemented adaptive management strategy has the potential to address important practical implementation issues arising due to noncompliance of an optimal management strategy and uncertain aquifer parameters.
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