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Development and Validation of an Evaluation Tool to Measure the Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Training among Healthcare Providers in Malaysia: The Providers’ Smoking Cessation Training Evaluation (ProSCiTE)

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Department of Social & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Nicotine Addiction Research Group UMCAS, Wisma R & D University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, 59200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214297
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Background: In line with Article 14 of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, we have witnessed vast developments in smoking cessation training for healthcare providers, offering help for smokers. However, there is no specific evaluation tool to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of these programs for future enhancement and sustainability. Objective: To develop and validate a new tool for evaluating smoking cessation training programs for healthcare providers called the Providers’ Smoking Cessation Training Evaluation (ProSCiTE). Methods: The 74-item ProSCiTE tool was developed based on a review of the literature and an expert panel review. The tool was validated in a sample of 403 healthcare providers using a cross-sectional study design from July to December 2016. Content validity was assessed by the Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI). The construct validity of the ProSCiTE was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to confirm psychometric properties. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: The content validity showed that the S-CVI ranged from 0.82 to 1.00 for consistency, representativeness, relevancy, and the clarity of each construct, resulting in 67 items for the questionnaire. The construct validity of the ProSCiTE (based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the four-factor structure (attitude, self-efficacy, behavior, and barriers) with 54.74% total variance) was acceptable (Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin = 0.923; Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant, p < 0.001). The internal consistency reliability of the four-factor structure was very good, with Cronbach’s alpha values at 0.89, 0.94, 0.95, and 0.90, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that 67 items of the ProSCiTE demonstrated good content and construct validity, as well as a high internal consistency reliability for the measurement of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, behavior, and barriers to smoking cessation interventions among healthcare providers. Therefore, the ProSCiTE is a valid and reliable research tool with which to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation training programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: content validity; construct validity; exploratory factor analysis; healthcare providers; program evaluation; smoking cessation; training; 5 As brief intervention content validity; construct validity; exploratory factor analysis; healthcare providers; program evaluation; smoking cessation; training; 5 As brief intervention
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Hasan, S.I.; Mohd Hairi, F.; Amer Nordin, A.S.; Danaee, M. Development and Validation of an Evaluation Tool to Measure the Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Training among Healthcare Providers in Malaysia: The Providers’ Smoking Cessation Training Evaluation (ProSCiTE). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4297.

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