- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204038
2. Material and Methods
- Did your child/children ever have a post-vaccination reaction after immunization? If yes, what were the symptoms?
- Has your child/children ever had any medical contraindications for vaccinations diagnosed by a physician?
- Do you think that qualifying tests for vaccination among children in Poland are carried out?
- Do you think that current childhood vaccinations are safe enough?
- Which of the following sources of knowledge about immunization is currently the source of your perception?
2.1. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Frequency of Reported AEFI
3.2. Characteristics of Respondents and their Relation to AEFI
3.3. Reported AEFI according to the Respondent’s Perception of Vaccination
4.1. Frequency of Declared AEFI and Demographic Profile of AEFI Reporters
4.2. Factors Associated with Reported AEFI
4.3. Surveillance and Physician’s Role in Reporting AEFI
4.4. Limitations of the Study
Conflicts of Interest
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|Variable||Value||Level of Education||Number of Children||Place of Residence||Financial Situation|
|Lower||Higher||p||One||More||p||Small City||Big City||p||Bad||Better||p|
|N = 597||N = 642||N = 390||N = 849||N = 168||N = 1071||N = 25||N = 1214|
|Any AEFI||Yes||162; 27.1%||232; 36.1%||**||98; 25.2%||296; 34.9%||**||57; 34.0||337; 31.5||NS||7; 28.0||387; 31.9||NS|
|No||435; 72.9%||410; 63.9%||292; 74.8%||553; 65.1%||111; 66.0||734; 68.5||18; 72.0||808; 68.1|
|Fever||Yes||132; 22.1||177; 27.6||**||74; 19.0||235; 27.7||**||52; 31.0||257; 24.0||NS||4; 16.0||305; 25.1||NS|
|No||465; 77.9||465; 72.4||316; 81.0||614; 72.3||116; 69.0||814; 76.0||21; 84.0||909; 74.9|
|At the injection||Yes||143; 23.9||192; 29.9||**||83; 21.3||252; 29.7||**||47; 28.0||288; 26.9||NS||6; 24.0||329; 27.1||NS|
|No||454; 76.1||450; 70,1||307; 78.7||597; 70.3||121; 72.0||783; 73.1||19; 76.0||885; 72.9|
|Lack of appetite||Yes||45; 7.5||57; 8.9||NS||17; 4.4||85; 10.0||**||10; 5.9||92; 8.6||NS||4; 16.0||98; 8.1||NS|
|No||552; 92.5||585; 91.1||373; 95.6||764; 90.0||158; 94.1||979; 91.4||21; 84.0||91.9|
|Allergy||Yes||21; 3.5||36; 5.6||NS||11; 2.8||46; 5.4||**||10; 5.9||47; 4.4||NS||0||57; 4.7||N/A|
|No||576; 96.5||606; 94.4||379; 97.2||803; 95.6||158; 94.1||1024; 95.6||25||1157; 95.3|
|Bruising||Yes||11; 1.8||4; 0.6||NS, F||1; 0.2||14; 1.6||** F||3; 1.8||12; 1.1||NS||0||15; 1.2||N/A|
|No||586; 98.2||638; 99.4||389; 99.8||835; 98.4||165; 98.2||1059; 98.9||25||1199; 98.8|
|Somnolence||Yes||54; 9.0||54; 8.4||NS||18; 4,6||90; 10.6||**||13; 7.7||95; 8.9||NS||2; 8.0||106; 8.7||NS|
|No||543; 91.0||588; 91.6||372; 95.4||759; 89.4||155; 92.3||976; 91.1||23; 92.0||1108; 91.3|
|Anxiety||Yes||48; 8.0||64; 10.0||NS||25; 6.4||87; 10.2||**||16; 9.5||96; 9.0||NS||2; 8.0||110; 9.0||NS|
|No||549; 92.0||578; 90.0||365; 93.6||762; 89.8||152; 90.5||975; 91.0||23; 92.0||1104; 91.0|
|Parental Opinion N = (1220)||AEFI (Adverse Event Following Immunization)|
|N = 394||N = 826|
|a. Vaccinations are a very important method for the prevention of infectious diseases||Yes||360||771||NS|
|b. The evidence of vaccinations’ efficacy is insufficient||Yes||97||238||NS|
|c. Vaccinations did not provide long-term immunity||Yes||119||196||**|
|d. Being sick with an infectious disease results in better immunity than vaccination||Yes||66||120||NS|
|e. The realization of vaccination is indicative of parents’ concern for children’s health||Yes||337||726||NS|
|f. The current vaccination strategy is reasonable||Yes||223||604||***|
|g. Vaccination should not be performed too early||Yes||101||123||***|
|h. The number of vaccinations is too high and should be reduced||Yes||100||111||***|
|i. The vaccination costs outweigh the benefits||Yes||66||121||NS|
|j. Education in this subject is sufficient||Yes||72||173||NS|
|k. Information on the unwanted post-vaccination reactions is sufficient||Yes||97||238||NS|
|Parameter||Odds Ratio Estimates|
|Point Estimates||Adjusted OR (95% CI)||p Value|
|Number of vaccines (n)||quantitative variable||1.026||1.01–1.04||<0.001|
|Education level||lower vs. higher||0.723||0.56–0.93||0.01|
|Vaccination are safe||yes vs. no||0.554||0.42–0.73||<0.001|
|Current vaccination strategy is reasonable||yes vs. no||0.640||0.48–0.84||0.001|
|The number of vaccines is too high and should be decreased||yes vs. no||1.648||1.18–2.88||0.002|
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