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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020264

A New Model Describing Copper Dose–Toxicity to Tomato and Bok Choy Growth in a Wide Range of Soils

1
,
1,* , 2
and
1,3
1
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2
School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
3
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Microbial Products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Soil Pollution and Remediation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1175 KB, uploaded 18 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Phytotoxicity thresholds for heavy metals are derived from dose–response curves, which show the relationships between exposure dose and toxicity response. However, the results of tests or observations are commonly based on total heavy metal concentration, not the exposure dose that causes phytotoxicity; additionally, the phytotoxicity response differs with plant species. In the present study, the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-extractable copper (Cu) concentration was determined in order to evaluate Cu extractability. As two important horticultural food crops in Asia, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum ‘Meifen No. 1’) and bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis ‘Susheng 28’) were used to investigate Cu phytotoxicity in a wide range of Chinese soils with and without leaching treatment, after which relationships between Cu phytotoxicity thresholds based on EDTA-extractions and soil properties were established. The phytotoxicity thresholds showed that biomass of bok choy was more sensitive to Cu than tomato. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that soil factors, including organic carbon (OC), citrate dithionate extractable manganese (CD-Mn), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and CaCO3 explained over 85% of the variance in Cu phytotoxicity thresholds. The EDTA-extractable Cu dose–response relationships were further improved by incorporating soil properties. The new phytotoxicity predictive models indicated soil properties (soil pH, OC, CEC, and oxalate-extractable Mn) and EDTA-extractable Cu concentration explained more than 90% of the variance in the phytotoxicity response of tomato and bok choy biomass. The new phytotoxicity predictive models could be used to develop a reasonable remediation strategy for contaminated soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; dose–response relationship; EDTA-extractability; phytotoxicity copper; dose–response relationship; EDTA-extractability; phytotoxicity
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Jiang, B.; Ma, Y.; Zhu, G.; Li, J. A New Model Describing Copper Dose–Toxicity to Tomato and Bok Choy Growth in a Wide Range of Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 264.

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