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Article

Season, Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation, and Markers of Glucose Metabolism in Children Living in Perth, Western Australia

1
Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth 6872, Australia
2
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Perth Children’s Hospital, Nedlands 6009, Australia
3
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), Yallambie 3085, Victoria, Australia
4
Medical School, Division of Paediatrics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia
5
Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle 6160, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193734
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sun Exposure and Vitamin D for Public Health)
Seasonality in glucose metabolism has been observed in adult populations; however, little is known of the associations between season and glucose metabolism in children. In this study, we examined whether markers of glucose metabolism (fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c) varied by season in a paediatric population (6–13 years of age) located in Perth (Western Australia, n = 262) with data categorised by weight. Linear regression was used to analyse the nature of the relationships between mean daily levels of terrestrial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (prior to the day of the blood test) and measures of glucose metabolism. Fasting blood glucose was significantly lower in autumn compared to spring, for children in combined, normal and obese weight categories. Fasting insulin was significantly lower in autumn and summer compared to winter for individuals of normal weight. HbA1c was significantly higher in summer (compared with winter and spring) in overweight children, which was in the opposite direction to other published findings in adults. In children with obesity, a strong inverse relationship (r = −0.67, p = 0.002) was observed for fasting glucose, and daily terrestrial UVR levels measured in the previous 6 months. Increased safe sun exposure in winter therefore represents a plausible means of reducing fasting blood sugar in children with obesity. However, further studies, using larger paediatric cohorts are required to confirm these relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: season; sunlight; terrestrial ultraviolet radiation; paediatric; blood glucose; insulin; HbA1c season; sunlight; terrestrial ultraviolet radiation; paediatric; blood glucose; insulin; HbA1c
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clarke, C.L.; Bell, L.M.; Gies, P.; Henderson, S.; Siafarikas, A.; Gorman, S. Season, Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation, and Markers of Glucose Metabolism in Children Living in Perth, Western Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3734. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193734

AMA Style

Clarke CL, Bell LM, Gies P, Henderson S, Siafarikas A, Gorman S. Season, Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation, and Markers of Glucose Metabolism in Children Living in Perth, Western Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3734. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193734

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clarke, Catherine L., Lana M. Bell, Peter Gies, Stuart Henderson, Aris Siafarikas, and Shelley Gorman. 2019. "Season, Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation, and Markers of Glucose Metabolism in Children Living in Perth, Western Australia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 19: 3734. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193734

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